Nor was any odour of pepsin emitted by them. [page 89]

Although it has long been known that pepsin with acetic acid has the power of digesting albuminous compounds, it appeared advisable to ascertain whether acetic acid could be replaced, without the loss of digestive power, by the allied acids which are believed to occur in the secretion of Drosera, namely, propionic, butyric, or valerianic. Dr. Burdon Sanderson was so kind as to make for me the following experiments, the results of which are valuable, independently of the present inquiry. Prof. Frankland supplied the acids.

"1. The purpose of the following experiments was to determine the digestive activity of liquids containing pepsin, when acidulated with certain volatile acids belonging to the acetic series, in comparison with liquids acidulated with hydrochloric acid, in proportion similar to that in which it exists in gastric juice.

"2. It has been determined empirically that the best results are obtained in artificial digestion when a liquid containing two per thousand of hydrochloric acid gas by weight is used. This corresponds to about 6.25 cubic centimetres per litre of ordinary strong hydrochloric acid. The quantities of propionic, butyric, and valerianic acids respectively which are required to neutralise as much base as 6.25 cubic centimetres of HCl, are in grammes 4.04 of propionic acid, 4.82 of butyric acid, and 5.68 of valerianic acid. It was therefore judged expedient, in comparing the digestive powers of these acids with that of hydrochloric acid, to use them in these proportions.

"3. Five hundred cub. cent. of a liquid containing about 8 cub. cent. of a glycerine extract of the mucous membrane of the stomach of a dog killed during digestion having been prepared, 10 cub. cent. of it were evaporated and dried at 110o. This quantity yielded 0.0031 of residue.

"4. Of this liquid four quantities were taken which were severally acidulated with hydrochloric, propionic, butyric, and valerianic acids, in the proportions above indicated. Each liquid was then placed in a tube, which was allowed to float in a water bath, containing a thermometer which indicated a temperature of 38o to 40o Cent. Into each, a quantity of unboiled fibrin was introduced, and the whole allowed to stand for four hours, the temperature being maintained during the whole time, and care being taken that each contained throughout an excess of fibrin. At the end of the period each liquid was filtered. Of the filtrate, which of course contained as much of the fibrin as had been digested during the four hours, [page 90] 10 cub. cent. were measured out and evaporated, and dried at 110o as before. The residues were respectively--

"In the liquid containing hydrochloric acid 0.4079 " " propionic acid 0.0601 " " butyric acid 0.1468 " " valerianic acid 0.1254

"Hence, deducting from each of these the above-mentioned residue, left when the digestive liquid itself was evaporated, viz. 0.0031, we have,

"For propionic acid 0.0570 " butyric acid 0.1437 " valerianic acid 0.1223

as compared with 0.4048 for hydrochloric acid; these several numbers expressing the quantities of fibrin by weight digested in presence of equivalent quantities of the respective acids under identical conditions.

"The results of the experiment may be stated thus:--If 100 represent the digestive power of a liquid containing pepsin with the usual proportion of hydrochloric acid, 14.0, 35.4, and 30.2, will represent respectively the digestive powers of the three acids under investigation.

"5. In a second experiment in which the procedure was in every respect the same, excepting that all the tubes were plunged into the same water-bath, and the residues dried at 115o C., the results were as follows:--

"Quantity of fibrin dissolved in four hours by 10 cub. cent. of the liquid:--

"Propionic acid 0.0563 Butyric acid 0.0835 Valerianic acid 0.0615

"The quantity digested by a similar liquid containing hydrochloric acid was 0.3376. Hence, taking this as 100, the following numbers represent the relative quantities digested by the other acids:--

"Propionic acid 16.5 Butyric acid 24.7 Valerianic acid 16.1

"6.

Insectivorous Plants Page 46

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Charles Darwin

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