The similar position of the anthers in the two forms is somewhat opposed to the present species being heterostyled; as is the great difference in the length of the pistil in several short-styled flowers. But the extraordinary variability in diameter of the pollen-grains, and the fact that in one set of flowers the grains from the long-styled flowers were larger than those from the short-styled, is strongly opposed to the belief that Phlox subulata is heterostyled. Possibly this species was once heterostyled, but is now becoming sub-dioecious; the short-styled plants having been rendered more feminine in nature. This would account for their ovaries usually containing more ovules, and for the variable condition of their pollen-grains. Whether the long- styled plants are now changing their nature, as would appear to be the case from the variability of their pollen-grains, and are becoming more masculine, I will not pretend to conjecture; they might remain as hermaphrodites, for the coexistence of hermaphrodite and female plants of the same species is by no means a rare event.

Erythroxylum [sp.?] (Erythroxylidae).

(FIGURE 3.8. Erythroxylon [sp.?] Left: Long-styled form. Right: Short-styled form. From a sketch by Fritz Muller, magnified five times.)

Fritz Muller sent me from South Brazil dried flowers of this tree, together with the drawings (Figure 3.8.), which show the two forms, magnified about five times, with the petals removed. In the long-styled form the stigmas project above the anthers, and the styles are nearly twice as long as those of the short-styled form, in which the stigmas stand beneath the anthers. The stigmas in many, but not in all the short-styled flowers are larger than those in the long-styled. The anthers of the short-styled flowers stand on a level with the stigmas of the other form; but the stamens are longer by only one-fourth or one- fifth of their own length than those of the long-styled. Consequently the anthers of the latter do not stand on a level with, but rather above the stigmas of the other form. Differently from what occurs in the following closely allied genus, Sethia, the stamens are of nearly equal length in the flowers of the same form. The pollen-grains of the short-styled flowers, measured in their dry state, are a little larger than those from the long-styled flowers in about the ratio of 100 to 93. (3/19. F. Muller remarks in his letter to me that the flowers, of which he carefully examined many specimens, are curiously variable in the number of their parts: 5 sepals and petals, 10 stamens and 3 pistils are the prevailing numbers; but the sepals and petals often vary from 5 to 7; the stamens from 10 to 14, and the pistils from 3 to 4.)

Sethia acuminata (Erythroxylidae).

Mr. Thwaites pointed out several years ago that this plant exists under two forms, which he designated as forma stylosa et staminea; and the flowers sent to me by him are clearly heterostyled. (3/20. 'Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae' 1864 page 54.) In the long-styled form the pistil is nearly twice as long, and the stamens half as long as the corresponding organs in the short-styled form. The stigmas of the long-styled seem rather smaller than those of the short-styled. All the stamens in the short-styled flowers are of nearly equal length, whereas in long-styled they differ in length, being alternately a little longer and shorter; and this difference in the stamens of the two forms is probably related, as we shall hereafter see in the case of the short-styled flowers of Lythrum salicaria, to the manner in which insects can best transport pollen from the long-styled flowers to the stigmas of the short-styled. The pollen-grains from the short-styled flowers, though variable in size, are to those of the long-styled, as far as I could make out, as 100 to 83 in their longer diameter. Sethia obtusifolia is heterostyled like S. acuminata.

Cratoxylon formosum (Hypericineae).

Mr. Thiselton Dyer remarks that this tree, an inhabitant of Malacca and Borneo, appears to be heterostyled.

The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species Page 54

19th Century English Literature

Charles Darwin

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