d and five short-styled. The pistil of the long-styled flowers projects just beyond the mouth of the corolla, and is thrice as long as that of the short-styled, and the divergent stigmas are likewise rather larger. The anthers in the long-styled form stand low down within the corolla, and are quite hidden. In the short-styled flowers the anthers project just above the mouth of the corolla, and the stigma stands low down within the tube. Considering the great difference in the length of the pistils in the two forms, it is remarkable that the pollen-grains differ very little in size, and Fritz Muller was struck with the same fact. In a dry state the grains from the short-styled flowers could just be perceived to be larger than those from the long-styled, and when both were swollen by immersion in water, the former were to the latter in diameter in the ratio of 100 to 92. In the long-styled flowers beaded hairs almost fill up the mouth of the corolla and project above it; they therefore stand above the anthers and beneath the stigma. In the short-styled flowers a similar brush of hairs is situated low down within the tubular corolla, above the stigma and beneath the anthers. The presence of these beaded hairs in both forms, though occupying such different positions, shows that they are probably of considerable functional importance. They would serve to guard the stigma of each form from its own pollen; but in accordance with Professor Kerner's view their chief use probably is to prevent the copious nectar being stolen by small crawling insects, which could not render any service to the species by carrying pollen from one form to the other. (3/23. 'Die Schutzmittel der Bluthen gegen unberufene Gaste' 1876 page 37.)

The flowers are so small and so crowded together that I was not willing to expend time in fertilising them separately; but I dragged repeatedly heads of short-styled flowers over three long-styled flower-heads, which were thus legitimately fertilised; and they produced many dozen fruits, each containing two good seeds. I fertilised in the same manner three heads on the same long- styled plant with pollen from another long-styled plant, so that these were fertilised illegitimately, and they did not yield a single seed. Nor did this plant, which was of course protected by a net, bear spontaneously any seeds. Nevertheless another long-styled plant, which was carefully protected, produced spontaneously a very few seeds; so that the long-styled form is not always quite sterile with its own pollen.

Faramea [sp.?] (Rubiaceae).

(FIGURE 3.9. Faramea [sp.?] Left: Short-styled form. Right: Long-styled form. Outlines of flowers from dried specimens. Pollen-grains magnified 180 times, by Fritz Muller.)

Fritz Muller has fully described the two forms of this remarkable plant, an inhabitant of South Brazil. (3/24. 'Botanische Zeitung' September 10, 1869 page 606.) In the long-styled form the pistil projects above the corolla, and is almost exactly twice as long as that of the short-styled, which is included within the tube. The former is divided into two rather short and broad stigmas, whilst the short-styled pistil is divided into two long, thin, sometimes much curled stigmas. The stamens of each form correspond in height or length with the pistils of the other form. The anthers of the short-styled form are a little larger than those of the long-styled; and their pollen-grains are to those of the other form as 100 to 67 in diameter. But the pollen-grains of the two forms differ in a much more remarkable manner, of which no other instance is known; those from the short-styled flowers being covered with sharp points; the smaller ones from the long-styled being quite smooth. Fritz Muller remarks that this difference between the pollen-grains of the two forms is evidently of service to the plant; for the grains from the projecting stamens of the short-styled form, if smooth, would have been liable to be blown away by the wind, and would thus have been lost; but the little points on their surfaces cause them to cohere, and at the same time favour their adhesion to the hairy bodies of insects, which merely brush against the anthers of these stamens whilst visiting the flowers. On the other hand, the smooth grains of the long-styled flowers are safely included within the tube of the corolla, so that they cannot be blown away, but are almost sure to adhere to the proboscis of an entering insect, which is necessarily pressed close against the enclosed anthers.

The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species Page 57

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Charles Darwin

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