Pot 3 : 54 7/8 : 46 5/8.

Pot 4 : 32 1/8 : 41 3/8. Pot 4 : 0 : 29 7/8. Pot 4 : 43 7/8 : 37 1/8.

Pot 5 : 46 6/8 : 42 1/8. Pot 5 : 40 4/8 : 42 1/8. Pot 5 : 43 : 0.

Pot 6 : 48 2/8 : 47 7/8. Pot 6 : 46 2/8 : 48 3/8.

Pot 7 : 48 5/8 : 25. Pot 7 : 42 : 40 5/8.

Pot 8 : 46 7/8 : 39 1/8.

Pot 9 : 49 : 30 3/8. Pot 9 : 50 3/8 : 15. Pot 9 : 46 3/8 : 36 7/8. Pot 9 : 47 6/8 : 44 1/8. Pot 9 : 0 : 31 6/8. Crowded Plants.

Pot 10 : 46 4/8 : 47 7/8. Pot 10 : 35 2/8 : 0. Pot 10 : 24 5/8 : 34 7/8. Pot 10 : 41 4/8 : 40 7/8. Pot 10 : 17 3/8 : 41 1/8. Crowded Plants.

Total : 1078.00 : 995.38.

The average height of the flower-stems on the twenty-five crossed plants in all the pots taken together is 43.12 inches, and that of the twenty-five self-fertilised plants 39.82, or as 100 to 92. In order to test this result, the plants planted in pairs in Pots 1 and 8 were considered by themselves, and the average height of the sixteen crossed plants is here 44.9, and that of the sixteen self-fertilised plants 42.03, or as 100 to 94. Again, the plants raised from the thickly sown seed in Pots 9 and 10, which were subjected to very severe mutual competition, were taken by themselves, and the average height of the nine crossed plants is 39.86, and that of the nine self-fertilised plants 35.88, or as 100 to 90. The plants in these two latter pots (9 and 10), after being measured, were cut down close to the ground and weighed: the nine crossed plants weighed 57.66 ounces, and the nine self-fertilised plants 45.25 ounces, or as 100 to 78. On the whole we may conclude, especially from the evidence of weight, that seedlings from a cross between flowers on the same plant have a decided, though not great, advantage over those from flowers fertilised with their own pollen, more especially in the case of the plants subjected to severe mutual competition. But the advantage is much less than that exhibited by the crossed offspring of distinct plants, for these exceeded the self-fertilised plants in height as 100 to 70, and in the number of flower-stems as 100 to 48. Digitalis thus differs from Ipomoea, and almost certainly from Mimulus, as with these two species a cross between flowers on the same plant did no good.

CALCEOLARIA.

A BUSHY GREENHOUSE VARIETY, WITH YELLOW FLOWERS BLOTCHED WITH PURPLE.

The flowers in this genus are constructed so as to favour or almost ensure cross-fertilisation (3/6. Hildebrand as quoted by H. Muller 'Die Befruchtung der Blumen' 1873 page 277.); and Mr. Anderson remarks that extreme care is necessary to exclude insects in order to preserve any kind true. (3/7. 'Gardeners' Chronicle' 1853 page 534.) He adds the interesting statement, that when the corolla is cut quite away, insects, as far as he has seen, never discover or visit the flowers. This plant is, however, self-fertile if insects are excluded. So few experiments were made by me, that they are hardly worth giving. Crossed and self-fertilised seeds were sown on opposite sides of a pot, and after a time the crossed seedlings slightly exceeded the self-fertilised in height. When a little further grown, the longest leaves on the former were very nearly 3 inches in length, whilst those on the self-fertilised plants were only 2 inches. Owing to an accident, and to the pot being too small, only one plant on each side grew up and flowered; the crossed plant was 19 1/2 inches in height, and the self-fertilised one 15 inches; or as 100 to 77.

Linaria vulgaris.

It has been mentioned in the introductory chapter that two large beds of this plant were raised by me many years ago from crossed and self-fertilised seeds, and that there was a conspicuous difference in height and general appearance between the two lots. The trial was afterwards repeated with more care; but as this was one of the first plants experimented on, my usual method was not followed. Seeds were taken from wild plants growing in this neighbourhood and sown in poor soil in my garden.

The Effects of Cross and Self-Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom Page 44

19th Century English Literature

Charles Darwin

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Charles Darwin

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