There is a specimen of this fine animal in the British Museum.), with its elongated muzzle; that of the larger dogs from the larger wolves, and the smaller and slighter dogs from the jackals: and thus perhaps we may account for certain constitutional and climatal differences. But it would be a great error to suppose that there has not been in addition (1/53. Even Pallas admits this; see 'Act. Acad. St. Petersburgh' 1780 page 93.) a large amount of variation. The intercrossing of the several aboriginal wild stocks, and of the subsequently formed races, has probably increased the total number of breeds, and, as we shall presently see, has greatly modified some of them. But we cannot explain by crossing the origin of such extreme forms as thoroughbred greyhounds, bloodhounds, bulldogs, Blenheim spaniels, terriers, pugs, etc., unless we believe that forms equally or more strongly characterised in these different respects once existed in nature. But hardly any one has been bold enough to suppose that such unnatural forms ever did or could exist in a wild state. When compared with all known members of the family of Canidae they betray a distinct and abnormal origin. No instance is on record of such dogs as bloodhounds, spaniels, true greyhounds having been kept by savages: they are the product of long-continued civilisation.

[The number of breeds and sub-breeds of the dog is great; Youatt for instance, describes twelve kinds of greyhounds. I will not attempt to enumerate or describe the varieties, for we cannot discriminate how much of their difference is due to variation, and how much to descent from different aboriginal stocks. But it may be worth while briefly to mention some points. Commencing with the skull, Cuvier has admitted (1/54. Quoted by I. Geoffroy 'Hist. Nat. Gen.' tome 3 page 453.) that in form the differences are "plus fortes que celles d'aucunes especes sauvages d'un meme genre naturel." The proportions of the different bones; the curvature of the lower jaw, the position of the condyles with respect to the plane of the teeth (on which F. Cuvier founded his classification), and in mastiffs the shape of its posterior branch; the shape of the zygomatic arch, and of the temporal fossae; the position of the occiput--all vary considerably. (1/55. F. Cuvier in 'Annales du Museum' tome 18 page 337; Godron 'De l'Espece' tome 1 page 342; and Col. H. Smith in 'Nat. Library' volume 9 page 101. See also some observations on the degeneracy of the skull in certain breeds, by Prof. Bianconi 'La Theorie Darwinienne' 1874 page 279.) The difference in size between the brains of dogs belonging to large and small breeds "is something prodigious." "Some dogs' brains are high and rounded, while others are low, long, and narrow in front." In the latter, "the olfactory lobes are visible for about half their extent, when the brain is seen from above, but they are wholly concealed by the hemispheres in other breeds." (1/56. Dr. Burt Wilder 'American Assoc. Advancement of Science' 1873 pages 236, 239.) The dog has properly six pairs of molar teeth in the upper jaw, and seven in the lower; but several naturalists have seen not rarely an additional pair in the upper jaw (1/57. Isid. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 'Hist. des Anomalies' 1832 tome 1 page 660, Gervais 'Hist. Nat. des Mammiferes' tome 2 1855 page 66. De Blainville ('Osteographie, Canidae' page 137) has also seen an extra molar on both sides.); and Professor Gervais says that there are dogs "qui ont sept paires de dents superieures et huit inferieures." De Blainville (1/58. 'Osteographie, Canidae' page 137.) has given full particulars on the frequency of these deviations in the number of the teeth, and has shown that it is not always the same tooth which is supernumerary. In short- muzzled races, according to H. Muller (1/59. Wurzburger 'Medecin. Zeitschrift' 1860 b. 1 s. 265.), the molar teeth stand obliquely, whilst in long-muzzled races they are placed longitudinally, with open spaces between them. The naked, so-called Egyptian or Turkish dog is extremely deficient in its teeth (1/60.

The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V1 Page 25

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