I have seen three cases of the terminal portion abruptly and angularly bent; and have seen and heard of four cases of a distinct though slight forking of the stripe. In Syria, Dr. Hooker and his party observed for me no less than five similar instances of the shoulder- stripe plainly bifurcating over the fore leg. In the common mule it likewise sometimes bifurcates. When I first noticed the forking and angular bending of the shoulder-stripe, I had seen enough of the stripes in the various equine species to feel convinced that even a character so unimportant as this had a distinct meaning, and was thus led to attend to the subject. I now find that in the E. burchellii and quagga, the stripe which corresponds with the shoulder-stripe of the ass, as well as some of the stripes on the neck, bifurcate, and that some of those near the shoulder have their extremities bent angularly backwards. The bifurcation and angular bending of the stripes on the shoulders apparently are connected with the nearly upright stripes on the sides of the body and neck changing their direction and becoming transverse on the legs. Finally, we see that the presence of shoulder, leg, and spinal stripes in the horse,-- their occasional absence in the ass,--the occurrence of double and triple shoulder-stripes in both animals, and the similar manner in which these stripes terminate downwards,--are all cases of analogous variation in the horse and ass. These cases are probably not due to similar conditions acting on similar constitutions, but to a partial reversion in colour to the common progenitor of the genus. We shall hereafter return to this subject, and discuss it more fully.

CHAPTER 1.III.

PIGS--CATTLE--SHEEP--GOATS.

PIGS BELONG TO TWO DISTINCT TYPES, SUS SCROFA AND INDICUS. TORFSCHWEIN. JAPAN PIGS. FERTILITY OF CROSSED PIGS. CHANGES IN THE SKULL OF THE HIGHLY CULTIVATED RACES. CONVERGENCE OF CHARACTER. GESTATION. SOLID-HOOFED SWINE. CURIOUS APPENDAGES TO THE JAWS. DECREASE IN SIZE OF THE TUSKS. YOUNG PIGS LONGITUDINALLY STRIPED. FERAL PIGS. CROSSED BREEDS.

CATTLE. ZEBU A DISTINCT SPECIES. EUROPEAN CATTLE PROBABLY DESCENDED FROM THREE WILD FORMS. ALL THE RACES NOW FERTILE TOGETHER. BRITISH PARK CATTLE. ON THE COLOUR OF THE ABORIGINAL SPECIES. CONSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCES. SOUTH AFRICAN RACES. SOUTH AMERICAN RACES. NIATA CATTLE. ORIGIN OF THE VARIOUS RACES OF CATTLE.

SHEEP. REMARKABLE RACES OF. VARIATIONS ATTACHED TO THE MALE SEX. ADAPTATIONS TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS. GESTATION OF. CHANGES IN THE WOOL. SEMI-MONSTROUS BREEDS.

GOATS. REMARKABLE VARIATIONS OF.

The breeds of the pig have recently been more closely studied, though much still remains to be done, than those of almost any other domesticated animal. This has been effected by Hermann von Nathusius in two admirable works, especially in the later one on the Skulls of the several races, and by Rutimeyer in his celebrated Fauna of the ancient Swiss lake-dwellings. (3/1. Hermann von Nathusius 'Die Racen des Schweines' Berlin 1860; and 'Vorstudien fur Geschichte' etc. 'Schweineschadel' Berlin 1864. Rutimeyer 'Die Fauna der Pfahlbauten' Basel 1861.) Nathusius has shown that all the known breeds may be divided into two great groups: one resembling in all important respects and no doubt descended from the common wild boar; so that this may be called the Sus scrofa group. The other group differs in several important and constant osteological characters; its wild parent- form is unknown; the name given to it by Nathusius, according to the law of priority, is Sus indicus, of Pallas. This name must now be followed, though an unfortunate one, as the wild aboriginal does not inhabit India, and the best-known domesticated breeds have been imported from Siam and China.

First for the Sus scrofa breeds, or those resembling the common wild boar. These still exist, according to Nathusius ('Schweineschadel' s. 75), in various parts of central and northern Europe; formerly every kingdom (3/2. Nathusius 'Die Racen des Schweines' Berlin 1860.

The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V1 Page 44

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Charles Darwin

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