CHAPTER 2.XX.--SELECTION BY MAN.

SELECTION A DIFFICULT ART--METHODICAL, UNCONSCIOUS, AND NATURAL SELECTION-- RESULTS OF METHODICAL SELECTION--CARE TAKEN IN SELECTION--SELECTION WITH PLANTS--SELECTION CARRIED ON BY THE ANCIENTS AND BY SEMI-CIVILISED PEOPLE-- UNIMPORTANT CHARACTERS OFTEN ATTENDED TO--UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION--AS CIRCUMSTANCES SLOWLY CHANGE, SO HAVE OUR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS CHANGED THROUGH THE ACTION OF UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION--INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT BREEDERS ON THE SAME SUB-VARIETY--PLANTS AS AFFECTED BY UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION--EFFECTS OF SELECTION AS SHOWN BY THE GREAT AMOUNT OF DIFFERENCE IN THE PARTS MOST VALUED BY MAN.

CHAPTER 2.XXI.--SELECTION, continued.

NATURAL SELECTION AS AFFECTING DOMESTIC PRODUCTIONS--CHARACTERS WHICH APPEAR OF TRIFLING VALUE OFTEN OF REAL IMPORTANCE--CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOURABLE TO SELECTION BY MAN--FACILITY IN PREVENTING CROSSES, AND THE NATURE OF THE CONDITIONS--CLOSE ATTENTION AND PERSEVERANCE INDISPENSABLE--THE PRODUCTION OF A LARGE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS ESPECIALLY FAVOURABLE--WHEN NO SELECTION IS APPLIED, DISTINCT RACES ARE NOT FORMED--HIGHLY-BRED ANIMALS LIABLE TO DEGENERATION--TENDENCY IN MAN TO CARRY THE SELECTION OF EACH CHARACTER TO AN EXTREME POINT, LEADING TO DIVERGENCE OF CHARACTER, RARELY TO CONVERGENCE-- CHARACTERS CONTINUING TO VARY IN THE SAME DIRECTION IN WHICH THEY HAVE ALREADY VARIED--DIVERGENCE OF CHARACTER, WITH THE EXTINCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VARIETIES, LEADS TO DISTINCTNESS IN OUR DOMESTIC RACES--LIMIT TO THE POWER OF SELECTION--LAPSE OF TIME IMPORTANT--MANNER IN WHICH DOMESTIC RACES HAVE ORIGINATED--SUMMARY.

CHAPTER 2.XXII.--CAUSES OF VARIABILITY.

VARIABILITY DOES NOT NECESSARILY ACCOMPANY REPRODUCTION--CAUSES ASSIGNED BY VARIOUS AUTHORS--INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES--VARIABILITY OF EVERY KIND DUE TO CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE--ON THE NATURE OF SUCH CHANGES--CLIMATE, FOOD, EXCESS OF NUTRIMENT--SLIGHT CHANGES SUFFICIENT--EFFECTS OF GRAFTING ON THE VARIABILITY OF SEEDLING-TREES--DOMESTIC PRODUCTIONS BECOME HABITUATED TO CHANGED CONDITIONS--ON THE ACCUMULATIVE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS--CLOSE INTERBREEDING AND THE IMAGINATION OF THE MOTHER SUPPOSED TO CAUSE VARIABILITY --CROSSING AS A CAUSE OF THE APPEARANCE OF NEW CHARACTERS--VARIABILITY FROM THE COMMINGLING OF CHARACTERS AND FROM REVERSION--ON THE MANNER AND PERIOD OF ACTION OF THE CAUSES WHICH EITHER DIRECTLY, OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, INDUCE VARIABILITY.

CHAPTER 2.XXIII.--DIRECT AND DEFINITE ACTION OF THE EXTERNAL CONDITIONS OF LIFE.

SLIGHT MODIFICATIONS IN PLANTS FROM THE DEFINITE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS, IN SIZE, COLOUR, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND IN THE STATE OF THE TISSUES--LOCAL DISEASES--CONSPICUOUS MODIFICATIONS FROM CHANGED CLIMATE OR FOOD, ETC.-- PLUMAGE OF BIRDS AFFECTED BY PECULIAR NUTRIMENT, AND BY THE INOCULATION OF POISON--LAND-SHELLS--MODIFICATIONS OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN A STATE OF NATURE THROUGH THE DEFINITE ACTION OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS--COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN TREES--GALLS--EFFECTS OF PARASITIC FUNGI--CONSIDERATIONS OPPOSED TO THE BELIEF IN THE POTENT INFLUENCE OF CHANGED EXTERNAL CONDITIONS--PARALLEL SERIES OF VARIETIES--AMOUNT OF VARIATION DOES NOT CORRESPOND WITH THE DEGREE OF CHANGE IN THE CONDITIONS--BUD-VARIATION--MONSTROSITIES PRODUCED BY UNNATURAL TREATMENT--SUMMARY.

The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V2 Page 04

19th Century English Literature

Charles Darwin

Free Books in the public domain from the Classic Literature Library ©

Charles Darwin

All Pages of This Book
Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 1
Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 2