This has been universally recognised in the case of hybrids and mongrels, but it has been recognised simply from the difference between the united forms rendering the resemblance of the offspring to their grandparents or more remote progenitors of easy detection. Reversion is likewise almost invariably the rule, as Mr. Sedgwick has shown, with certain diseases. Hence we must conclude that a tendency to this peculiar form of transmission is an integral part of the general law of inheritance.

MONSTROSITIES.

A large number of monstrous growths and of lesser anomalies are admitted by every one to be due to an arrest of development, that is, to the persistence of an embryonic condition. But many monstrosities cannot be thus explained; for parts of which no trace can be detected in the embryo, but which occur in other members of the same class of animals occasionally appear, and these may probably with truth be attributed to reversion. As, however, I have treated this subject as fully as I could in my 'Descent of Man' (ch. 1 2nd edition), I will not here recur to it.

[When flowers which have normally an irregular structure become regular or peloric, the change is generally looked at by botanists as a return to the primitive state. But Dr. Maxwell Masters (13/68. 'Natural Hist. Review' April 1863 page 258. See also his Lecture, Royal Institution, March 16, 1860. On same subject see Moquin-Tandon 'Elements de Teratologie' 1841 pages 184, 352. Dr. Peyritsch has collected a large number of very interesting cases 'Sitzb. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch.' Wien b. 60 and especially b. 66 1872 page 125.), who has ably discussed this subject, remarks that when, for instance, all the sepals of a Tropaeolum become green and of the same shape, instead of being coloured with one prolonged into a spur, or when all the petals of a Linaria become simple and regular, such cases may be due merely to an arrest of development; for in these flowers all the organs during their earliest condition are symmetrical, and, if arrested at this stage of growth, they would not become irregular. If, moreover, the arrest were to take place at a still earlier period of development, the result would be a simple tuft of green leaves; and no one probably would call this a case of reversion. Dr. Masters designates the cases first alluded to as regular peloria; and others, in which all the corresponding parts assume a similar form of irregularity, as when all the petals in a Linaria become spurred, as irregular peloria. We have no right to attribute these latter cases to reversion, until it can be shown that the parent-form, for instance, of the genus Linaria had had all its petals spurred; for a chance of this nature might result from the spreading of an anomalous structure, in accordance with the law, to be discussed in a future chapter, of homologous parts tending to vary in the same manner. But as both forms of peloria frequently occur on the same individual plant of the Linaria (13/69. Verlot 'Des Varietes' 1865 page 89; Naudin 'Nouvelles Archives du Museum' tome 1 page 137.), they probably stand in some close relation to one another. On the doctrine that peloria is simply the result of an arrest of development, it is difficult to understand how an organ arrested at a very early period of growth should acquire its full functional perfection;--how a petal, supposed to be thus arrested, should acquire its brilliant colours, and serve as an envelope to the flower, or a stamen produce efficient pollen; yet this occurs with many peloric flowers. That pelorism is not due to mere chance variability, but either to an arrest of development or to reversion, we may infer from an observation made by Ch. Morren (13/70. In his discussion on some curious peloric Calceolarias quoted in 'Journal of Horticulture' February 24, 1863 page 152.) namely, that families which have irregular flowers often "return by these monstrous growths to their regular form; whilst we never see a regular flower realise the structure of an irregular one."

Some flowers have almost certainly become more or less completely peloric through reversion, as the following interesting case shows.

The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V2 Page 25

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