On the same principle, the white variety of V. lychnitis by its own pollen (from six capsules), and by the pollen of the yellow variety (eight capsules), yielded seed in the proportion of 100 to 82. The yellow variety of V. thapsus by its own pollen (eight capsules), and by that of the white variety (only two capsules), yielded seed in the proportion of 100 to 94. Lastly, the white variety of V. blattaria by its own pollen (eight capsules), and by that of the yellow variety (five capsules), yielded seed in the proportion of 100 to 79. So that in every case the unions of similarly-coloured varieties of the same species were more fertile than the unions of dissimilarly-coloured varieties; when all the cases are grouped together, the difference of fertility is as 100 to 86. Some additional trials were made, and altogether thirty-six similarly-coloured unions yielded thirty-five good capsules; whilst thirty-five dissimilarly- coloured unions yielded only twenty-six good capsules. Besides the foregoing experiments, the purple V. phoeniceum was crossed by a rose-coloured and a white variety of the same species; these two varieties were also crossed together, and these several unions yielded less seed than V. phoeniceum by its own pollen. Hence it follows from Mr. Scott's experiments, that in the genus Verbascum the similarly and dissimilarly-coloured varieties of the same species behave, when crossed, like closely allied but distinct species. (16/18. The following facts, given by Kolreuter in his 'Dritte Fortsetzung' ss. 34, 39, appear at first sight strongly to confirm Mr. Scott's and Gartner's statements; and to a certain limited extent they do so. Kolreuter asserts, from innumerable observations, that insects incessantly carry pollen from one species and variety of Verbascum to another; and I can confirm this assertion; yet he found that the white and yellow varieties of Verbascum lychnitis often grew wild mingled together: moreover, he cultivated these two varieties in considerable numbers during four years in his garden, and they kept true by seed; but when he crossed them, they produced flowers of an intermediate tint. Hence it might have been thought that both varieties must have a stronger elective affinity for the pollen of their own variety than for that of the other; this elective affinity, I may add of each species for its own pollen (Kolreuter 'Dritte Forts.' s. 39 and Gartner 'Bastarderz.' passim) being a perfectly well-ascertained power. But the force of the foregoing facts is much lessened by Gartner's numerous experiments, for, differently from Kolreuter, he never once got ('Bastarderz.' s. 307) an intermediate tint when he crossed the yellow and white flowered varieties of Verbascum. So that the fact of the white and yellow varieties keeping true to their colour by seed does not prove that they were not mutually fertilised by the pollen carried by insects from one to the other.)

This remarkable fact of the sexual affinity of similarly-coloured varieties, as observed by Gartner and Mr. Scott, may not be of very rare occurrence; for the subject has not been attended to by others. The following case is worth giving, partly to show how difficult it is to avoid error. Dr. Herbert (16/19. 'Amaryllidaceae' 1837 page 366. Gartner has made a similar observation.) has remarked that variously-coloured double varieties of the Hollyhock (Althea rosea) may be raised with certainty by seed from plants growing close together. I have been informed that nurserymen who raise seed for sale do not separate their plants; accordingly I procured seed of eighteen named varieties; of these, eleven varieties produced sixty-two plants all perfectly true to their kind; and seven produced forty-nine plants, half of which were true and half false. Mr. Masters of Canterbury has given me a more striking case; he saved seed from a great bed of twenty-four named varieties planted in closely adjoining rows, and each variety reproduced itself truly with only sometimes a shade of difference in tint.

The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V2 Page 56

19th Century English Literature

Charles Darwin

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