The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals Page 01
THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS
BY CHARLES DARWIN M.A., F.R.S., ETC.
_WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS_
NEW YORK D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 1899
CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION......................................................Pages 1-26
CHAP. I--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION. The three chief principles stated--The first principle--Serviceable actions become habitual in association with certain states of the mind, and are performed whether or not of service in each particular case-- The force of habit--Inheritance--Associated habitual movements in man--Reflex actions--Passage of habits into reflex actions-- Associated habitual movements in the lower animals-- Concluding remarks ............27-49
CHAP. II--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION--_continued_. The Principle of Antithesis--Instances in the dog and cat--Origin of the principle-- Conventional signs--The principle of antithesis has not arisen from opposite actions being consciously performed under opposite impulses ..........50-65
CHAP. III--GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION--_concluded_.
The principle of the direct action of the excited nervous system on the body, independently of the will and in part of habit--Change of colour in the hair-- Trembling of the muscles--Modified secretions--Perspiration--Expression of extreme pain--Of rage, great joy, and terror--Contrast between the emotions which cause and do not cause expressive movements--Exciting and depressing states of the mind--Summary............................................ 66-82
CHAP. IV--MEANS OF EXPRESSION. IN ANIMALS. The emission of sounds-- Vocal sounds--Sounds otherwise produced--Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs, feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror--The drawing back of the ears as a preparation for fighting, and as an expression of anger-- Erection of the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention 88-114
CHAP. V.--SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS. The Dog, various expressive movements of--Cats--Horses--Ruminants--Monkeys, their expression of joy and affection--Of pain--Anger Astonishment and Terror Pages 115-145
CHAP. VI.--SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN: SUFFERING AND WEEPING. The screaming and weeping of infants--Form of features--Age at which weeping commences-- The effects of habitual restraint on weeping--Sobbing--Cause of the contraction of the muscles round the eyes during screaming-- Cause of the secretion of tears 146-175
CHAP. VII.--LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR. General effect of grief on the system--Obliquity of the eyebrows under suffering-- On the cause of the obliquity of the eyebrows--On the depression of the corners of the mouth 176-195
CHAP. VIII.--JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION. Laughter primarily the expression of joy--Ludicrous ideas-- Movements of the features during laughter--Nature of the sound produced-- The secretion of tears during loud laughter--Gradation from loud laughter to gentle smiling--High spirits--The expression of love-- Tender feelings--Devotion 196-219
CHAP. IX.--REFLECTION--MEDITATION--ILL--TEMPER--SULKINESS DETERMINATION. The act of frowning--Reflection with an effort or with the perception of something difficult or disagreeable--Abstracted meditation-- Ill-temper--Moroseness--Obstinacy--Sulkiness and pouting-- Decision or determination--The firm closure of the mouth 220-236
CHAP. X.-HATRED AND ANGER.
Hatred--Rage, effects of on the system--Uncovering of the teeth-- Rage in the insane--Anger and indignation--As expressed by the various races of man--Sneering and defiance--The uncovering of the canine teeth on one side of the face 237-252
CHAP. XI.--DISDAIN--CONTEMPT--DISGUST--GUILT--PRIDE, ETC.--HELPLESSNESS-- PATIENCE--AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION. Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed--Derisive Smile--Gestures expressive of contempt-- Disgust--Guilt, deceit, pride, etc.--Helplessness or impotence-- Patience--Obstinacy--Shrugging the shoulders common to most of the races of man--Signs of affirmation and negation 253-277