(s.26.) If Dr. Piderit had studied Sir C. Bell's work, he would probably not have said (s. 101) that violent laughter causes a frown from partaking of the nature of pain; or that with infants (s. 103) the tears irritate the eyes, and thus excite the contraction of the surrounding in muscles. Many good remarks are scattered throughout this volume, to which I shall hereafter refer.

Short discussions on Expression may be found in various works, which need not here be particularised. Mr. Bain, however, in two of his works has treated the subject at some length. He says,[8] "I look upon the expression so-called as part and parcel of the feeling. I believe it to be a general law of the mind that along with the fact of inward feeling or consciousness, there is a diffusive action or excitement over the bodily members." In another place he adds, "A very considerable number of the facts may be brought under the following principle: namely, that states of pleasure are connected with an increase, and states of pain with an abatement, of some, or all, of the vital functions." But the above law of the diffusive action of feelings seems too general to throw much light on special expressions.

Mr. Herbert Spencer, in treating of the Feelings in his `Principles of Psychology' (1855), makes the following remarks:--"Fear, when strong, expresses itself in cries, in efforts to hide or escape, in palpitations and tremblings; and these are just the manifestations that would accompany an actual experience of the evil feared. The destructive passions are shown in a general tension of the muscular system, in gnashing of the teeth and protrusion of the claws, in dilated eyes and nostrils in growls; and these are weaker forms of the actions that accompany the killing of prey." Here we have, as I believe, the true theory of a large number of expressions; but the chief interest and difficulty of the subject lies in following out the wonderfully complex results. I infer that some one (but who he is I have not been able to ascertain) formerly advanced a nearly similar view, for Sir C. Bell says,[9] "It has been maintained that what are called the external signs of passion, are only the concomitants of those voluntary movements which the structure renders necessary." Mr. Spencer has also published[10] a valuable essay on the physiology of Laughter, in which he insists on "the general law that feeling passing a certain pitch, habitually vents itself in bodily action," and that "an overflow of nerve-force undirected by any motive, will manifestly take first the most habitual routes; and if these do not suffice, will next overflow into the less habitual ones." This law I believe to be of the highest importance in throwing light on our subject.`

[8] `The Senses and the Intellect,' 2nd edit. 1864, pp. 96 and 288. The preface to the first edition of this work is dated June, 1855. See also the 2nd edition of Mr. Bain's work on the `Emotions and Will.'

[9] `The Anatomy of Expression,' 3rd edit. p. 121.

[10] `Essays, Scientific, Political, and Speculative,' Second Series, 1863, p. 111. There is a discussion on Laughter in the First Series of Essays, which discussion seems to me of very inferior value.

[11] Since the publication of the essay just referred to, Mr. Spencer has written another, on "Morals and Moral Sentiments," in the `Fortnightly Review,' April 1, 1871, p. 426. He has, also, now published his final conclusions in vol. ii. of the second edit. of the `Principles of Psychology,' 1872, p. 539. I may state, in order that I may not be accused of trespassing on Mr. Spencer's domain, that I announced in my `Descent of Man,' that I had then written a part of the present volume: my first MS. notes on the subject of expression bear the date of the year 1838.

All the authors who have written on Expression, with the exception of Mr. Spencer--the great expounder of the principle of Evolution-- appear to have been firmly convinced that species, man of course included, came into existence in their present condition. Sir C.

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