The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication V1 Page 01

THE VARIATION OF

ANIMALS AND PLANTS

UNDER DOMESTICATION

BY

CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S., ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME I.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

During the seven years which have elapsed since the publication in 1868 of the first edition of this Work, I have continued to attend to the same subjects, as far as lay in my power; and I have thus accumulated a large body of additional facts, chiefly through the kindness of many correspondents. Of these facts I have been able here to use only those which seemed to me the more important. I have omitted some statements, and corrected some errors, the discovery of which I owe to my reviewers. Many additional references have been given. The eleventh chapter, and that on Pangenesis, are those which have been most altered, parts having been re- modelled; but I will give a list of the more important alterations for the sake of those who may possess the first edition of this book.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER 1.I.

DOMESTIC DOGS AND CATS.

ANCIENT VARIETIES OF THE DOG--RESEMBLANCE OF DOMESTIC DOGS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES TO NATIVE CANINE SPECIES--ANIMALS NOT ACQUAINTED WITH MAN AT FIRST FEARLESS--DOGS RESEMBLING WOLVES AND JACKALS--HABIT OF BARKING ACQUIRED AND LOST--FERAL DOGS--TAN-COLOURED EYE-SPOTS--PERIOD OF GESTATION- -OFFENSIVE ODOUR--FERTILITY OF THE RACES WHEN CROSSED--DIFFERENCES IN THE SEVERAL RACES IN PART DUE TO DESCENT FROM DISTINCT SPECIES--DIFFERENCES IN THE SKULL AND TEETH--DIFFERENCES IN THE BODY, IN CONSTITUTION--FEW IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES HAVE BEEN FIXED BY SELECTION--DIRECT ACTION OF CLIMATE--WATER-DOGS WITH PALMATED FEET--HISTORY OF THE CHANGES WHICH CERTAIN ENGLISH RACES OF THE DOG HAVE GRADUALLY UNDERGONE THROUGH SELECTION--EXTINCTION OF THE LESS IMPROVED SUB-BREEDS.

CATS, CROSSED WITH SEVERAL SPECIES--DIFFERENT BREEDS FOUND ONLY IN SEPARATED COUNTRIES--DIRECT EFFECTS OF THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE--FERAL CATS-- INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY.

CHAPTER 1.II.

HORSES AND ASSES.

HORSE--DIFFERENCES IN THE BREEDS--INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF--DIRECT EFFECTS OF THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE--CAN WITHSTAND MUCH COLD--BREEDS MUCH MODIFIED BY SELECTION--COLOURS OF THE HORSE--DAPPLING--DARK STRIPES ON THE SPINE, LEGS, SHOULDERS, AND FOREHEAD--DUN-COLOURED HORSES MOST FREQUENTLY STRIPED-- STRIPES PROBABLY DUE TO REVERSION TO THE PRIMITIVE STATE OF THE HORSE.

ASSES--BREEDS OF--COLOUR OF--LEG- AND SHOULDER-STRIPES--SHOULDER-STRIPES SOMETIMES ABSENT, SOMETIMES FORKED.

CHAPTER 1.III.

PIGS--CATTLE--SHEEP--GOATS.

PIGS BELONG TO TWO DISTINCT TYPES, SUS SCROFA AND INDICUS--TORFSCHWEIN-- JAPAN PIGS--FERTILITY OF CROSSED PIGS--CHANGES IN THE SKULL OF THE HIGHLY CULTIVATED RACES--CONVERGENCE OF CHARACTER--GESTATION--SOLID-HOOFED SWINE-- CURIOUS APPENDAGES TO THE JAWS--DECREASE IN SIZE OF THE TUSKS--YOUNG PIGS LONGITUDINALLY STRIPED--FERAL PIGS--CROSSED BREEDS.

CATTLE--ZEBU A DISTINCT SPECIES--EUROPEAN CATTLE PROBABLY DESCENDED FROM THREE WILD FORMS--ALL THE RACES NOW FERTILE TOGETHER--BRITISH PARK CATTLE-- ON THE COLOUR OF THE ABORIGINAL SPECIES--CONSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCES--SOUTH AFRICAN RACES--SOUTH AMERICAN RACES--NIATA CATTLE--ORIGIN OF THE VARIOUS RACES OF CATTLE.

SHEEP--REMARKABLE RACES OF--VARIATIONS ATTACHED TO THE MALE SEX-- ADAPTATIONS TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS--GESTATION OF--CHANGES IN THE WOOL--SEMI- MONSTROUS BREEDS.

GOATS--REMARKABLE VARIATIONS OF.

CHAPTER 1.IV.

DOMESTIC RABBITS.

DOMESTIC RABBITS DESCENDED FROM THE COMMON WILD RABBIT--ANCIENT DOMESTICATION--ANCIENT SELECTION--LARGE LOP-EARED RABBITS--VARIOUS BREEDS-- FLUCTUATING CHARACTERS--ORIGIN OF THE HIMALAYAN BREED--CURIOUS CASE OF INHERITANCE--FERAL RABBITS IN JAMAICA AND THE FALKLAND ISLANDS--PORTO SANTO FERAL RABBITS--OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS--SKULL--SKULL OF HALF-LOP RABBITS-- VARIATIONS IN THE SKULL ANALOGOUS TO DIFFERENCES IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HARES--VERTEBRAE--STERNUM--SCAPULA--EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE PROPORTIONS OF THE LIMBS AND BODY--CAPACITY OF THE SKULL AND REDUCED SIZE OF THE BRAIN--SUMMARY ON THE MODIFICATIONS OF DOMESTICATED RABBITS.

CHAPTER 1.V.

DOMESTIC PIGEONS.

ENUMERATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL BREEDS--INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY-- VARIATIONS OF A REMARKABLE NATURE--OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS: SKULL, LOWER JAW, NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE--CORRELATION OF GROWTH: TONGUE WITH BEAK; EYELIDS AND NOSTRILS WITH WATTLED SKIN--NUMBER OF WING-FEATHERS AND LENGTH OF WING- -COLOUR AND DOWN--WEBBED AND FEATHERED FEET--ON THE EFFECTS OF DISUSE-- LENGTH OF FEET IN CORRELATION WITH LENGTH OF BEAK--LENGTH OF STERNUM, SCAPULA, AND FURCULUM--LENGTH OF WINGS--SUMMARY ON THE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE IN THE SEVERAL BREEDS.

CHAPTER 1.VI.

PIGEONS--continued.

ON THE ABORIGINAL PARENT-STOCK OF THE SEVERAL DOMESTIC RACES--HABITS OF LIFE--WILD RACES OF THE ROCK-PIGEON--DOVECOTE-PIGEONS--PROOFS OF THE DESCENT OF THE SEVERAL RACES FROM COLUMBA LIVIA--FERTILITY OF THE RACES WHEN CROSSED--REVERSION TO THE PLUMAGE OF THE WILD ROCK-PIGEON-- CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOURABLE TO THE FORMATION OF THE RACES--ANTIQUITY AND HISTORY OF THE PRINCIPAL RACES--MANNER OF THEIR FORMATION--SELECTION-- UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION--CARE TAKEN BY FANCIERS IN SELECTING THEIR BIRDS-- SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT STRAINS GRADUALLY CHANGE INTO WELL-MARKED BREEDS-- EXTINCTION OF INTERMEDIATE FORMS--CERTAIN BREEDS REMAIN PERMANENT, WHILST OTHERS CHANGE--SUMMARY.

Charles Darwin

All Pages of This Book
Animal Jokes
Various Animal Jokes
Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 1
Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication 2