d'Hist. Nat.' tome 10 page 172; and his son Isidore in 'Hist. Nat. Gen.' tome 3 page 69. Vasey in his 'Delineations of the Ox Tribe' 1851 page 127, says the zebu has four, and common ox five, sacral vertebrae. Mr. Hodgson found the ribs either thirteen or fourteen in number; see a note in 'Indian Field' 1858 page 62.) than do the fossil and prehistoric European species, namely, Bos primigenius and longifrons, from each other. They differ, also, as Mr. Blyth (3/33. 'The Indian Field' 1858 page 74 where Mr. Blyth gives his authorities with respect to the feral humped cattle. Pickering also in his 'Races of Man' 1850 page 274 notices the peculiar grunt-like character of the voice of the humped cattle.), who has particularly attended to this subject, remarks, in general configuration, in the shape of their ears, in the point where the dewlap commences, in the typical curvature of their horns, in their manner of carrying their heads when at rest, in their ordinary variations of colour, especially in the frequent presence of "nilgau-like markings on their feet," and "in the one being born with teeth protruding through the jaws, and the other not so." They have different habits, and their voice is entirely different. The humped cattle in India "seldom seek shade, and never go into the water and there stand knee-deep, like the cattle of Europe." They have run wild in parts of Oude and Rohilcund, and can maintain themselves in a region infested by tigers. They have given rise to many races differing greatly in size, in the presence of one or two humps, in length of horns, and other respects. Mr. Blyth sums up emphatically that the humped and humpless cattle must be considered as distinct species. When we consider the number of points in external structure and habits, independently of important osteological differences, in which they differ from each other; and that many of these points are not likely to have been affected by domestication, there can hardly be a doubt, notwithstanding the adverse opinion of some naturalists, that the humped and non-humped cattle must be ranked as specifically distinct.
The European breeds of humpless cattle are numerous. Professor Low enumerates 19 British breeds, only a few of which are identical with those on the Continent. Even the small Channel islands of Guernsey, Jersey, and Alderney possess their own sub-breeds (3/34. Mr. H.E. Marquand in 'The Times' June 23, 1856.); and these again differ from the cattle of the other British islands, such as Anglesea, and the western isles of Scotland. Desmarest, who paid attention to the subject, describes 15 French races, excluding sub-varieties and those imported from other countries. In other parts of Europe there are several distinct races, such as the pale-coloured Hungarian cattle, with their light and free step, and enormous horns sometimes measuring above five feet from tip to tip (3/35. Vasey 'Delineations of the Ox-Tribe' page 124. Brace 'Hungary' 1851 page 94. The Hungarian cattle descend according to Rutimeyer 'Zahmen Europ. Rindes' 1866 s. 13 from Bos primigenius.): the Podolian cattle also are remarkable from the height of their fore-quarters. In the most recent work on Cattle (3/36. Moll and Gayot 'La Connaissance Gen. du Boeuf' Paris 1860. Fig. 82 is that of the Podolian breed.), engravings are given of fifty-five European breeds; it is, however, probable that several of these differ very little from each other, or are merely synonyms. It must not be supposed that numerous breeds of cattle exist only in long-civilised countries, for we shall presently see that several kinds are kept by the savages of Southern Africa.
[With respect to the parentage of the several European breeds, we already know much from Nilsson's Memoir (3/37. A translation appeared in three parts in the 'Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.' 2nd series volume 4 1849.), and more especially from Rutimeyer's works and those of Boyd Dawkins. Two or three species or forms of Bos, closely allied to still living domestic races, have been found in the more recent tertiary deposits or amongst prehistoric remains in Europe.