At Port S. Julian, I ascended one of the flat- topped hills, the denuded remnant of the highest plain, and found it, at the height of 950 feet, capped with the usual bed of gravel.

Near the mouth of the Santa Cruz, the bed of gravel on the 355 feet plain is from twenty to about thirty-five feet in thickness. The pebbles vary from minute ones to the size of a hen's egg, and even to that of half a man's head; they consist of paler varieties of porphyry than those found further northward, and there are fewer of the gallstone-yellow kind; pebbles of compact black clay-slate were here first observed. The gravel, as we have seen, covers the step-formed plains at the mouth, head, and on the sides of the great valley of the Santa Cruz. At a distance of 110 miles from the coast, the plain has risen to the height of 1,416 feet above the sea; and the gravel, with the associated great boulder formation, has attained a thickness of 212 feet. The plain, apparently with its usual gravel covering, slopes up to the foot of the Cordillera to the height of between 3,200 and 3,300 feet. In ascending the valley, the gravel gradually becomes entirely altered in character: high up, we have pebbles of crystalline feldspathic rocks, compact clay-slate, quartzose schists, and pale-coloured porphyries; these rocks, judging both from the gigantic boulders in the surface and from some small pebbles embedded beneath 700 feet in thickness of the old tertiary strata, are the prevailing kinds in this part of the Cordillera; pebbles of basalt from the neighbouring streams of basaltic lava are also numerous; there are few or none of the reddish or of the gallstone-yellow porphyries so common near the coast. Hence the pebbles on the 350 feet plain at the mouth of the Santa Cruz cannot have been derived (with the exception of those of compact clay- slate, which, however, may equally well have come from the south) from the Cordillera in this latitude; but probably, in chief part, from farther north.

Southward of the Santa Cruz, the gravel may be seen continuously capping the great 840 feet plain: at the Rio Gallegos, where this plain is succeeded by a lower one, there is, as I am informed by Captain Sulivan, an irregular covering of gravel from ten to twelve feet in thickness over the whole country. The district on each side of the Strait of Magellan is covered up either with gravel or the boulder formation: it was interesting to observe the marked difference between the perfectly rounded state of the pebbles in the great shingle formation of Patagonia, and the more or less angular fragments in the boulder formation. The pebbles and fragments near the Strait of Magellan nearly all belong to rocks known to occur in Fuegia. I was therefore much surprised in dredging south of the Strait to find, in latitude 54 degrees 10' south, many pebbles of the gallstone-yellow siliceous porphyry; I procured others from a great depth off Staten Island, and others were brought me from the western extremity of the Falkland Islands. (At my request, Mr. Kent collected for me a bag of pebbles from the beach of White Rock harbour, in the northern part of the sound, between the two Falkland Islands. Out of these well-rounded pebbles, varying in size from a walnut to a hen's egg, with some larger, thirty-eight evidently belonged to the rocks of these islands; twenty-six were similar to the pebbles of porphyry found on the Patagonian plains, which rocks do not exist in situ in the Falklands; one pebble belonged to the peculiar yellow siliceous porphyry; thirty were of doubtful origin.) The distribution of the pebbles of this peculiar porphyry, which I venture to affirm is not found in situ either in Fuegia, the Falkland Islands, or on the coast of Patagonia, is very remarkable, for they are found over a space of 840 miles in a north and south line, and at the Falklands, 300 miles eastward of the coast of Patagonia. Their occurrence in Fuegia and the Falklands may, however, perhaps be due to the same ice-agency by which the boulders have been there transported.

Charles Darwin

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