For a length of 775 miles, they occur in the same latitudes on both sides of the continent. Without taking this circumstance into consideration, it is probable from the reasons assigned in the last chapter, that the entire breadth of the continent in Central Patagonia has been uplifted in mass; but from other reasons there given, it would be hazardous to extend this conclusion to La Plata. From the continent being narrow in the southern-most parts of Patagonia, and from the shells found at the Inner Narrows of the Strait of Magellan, and likewise far up the valley of the Santa Cruz, it is probable that the southern part of the western coast, which was not visited by me, has been elevated within the period of recent Mollusca: if so, the shores of the Pacific have been continuously, recently, and in a geological sense synchronously upraised, from Lima for a length of 2,480 nautical miles southward,--a distance equal to that from the Red Sea to the North Cape of Scandinavia!


Basin-like plains of Chile; their drainage, their marine origin. Marks of sea-action on the eastern flanks of the Cordillera. Sloping terrace-like fringes of stratified shingle within the valleys of the Cordillera; their marine origin. Boulders in the valley of Cachapual. Horizontal elevation of the Cordillera. Formation of valleys. Boulders moved by earthquake-waves. Saline superficial deposits. Bed of nitrate of soda at Iquique. Saline incrustations. Salt-lakes of La Plata and Patagonia; purity of the salt; its origin.

The space between the Cordillera and the coast of Chile is on a rude average from eighty to above one hundred miles in width; it is formed, either of an almost continuous mass of mountains, or more commonly of several nearly parallel ranges, separated by plains; in the more southern parts of this province the mountains are quite subordinate to the plains; in the northern part the mountains predominate.

The basin-like plains at the foot of the Cordillera are in several respects remarkable; that on which the capital of Chile stands is fifteen miles in width, in an east and west line, and of much greater length in a north and south line; it stands 1,750 feet above the sea; its surface appears smooth, but really falls and rises in wide gentle undulations, the hollows corresponding with the main valleys of the Cordillera: the striking manner in which it abruptly comes up to the foot of this great range has been remarked by every author since the time of Molina. (This plain is partially separated into two basins by a range of hills; the southern half, according to Meyen ("Reise um Erde" Th. 1 s. 274), falls in height, by an abrupt step, of between fifteen and twenty feet.) Near the Cordillera it is composed of a stratified mass of pebbles of all sizes, occasionally including rounded boulders: near its western boundary, it consists of reddish sandy clay, containing some pebbles and numerous fragments of pumice, and sometimes passes into pure sand or into volcanic ashes. At Podaguel, on this western side of the plain, beds of sand are capped by a calcareous tuff, the uppermost layers being generally hard and substalagmitic, and the lower ones white and friable, both together precisely resembling the beds at Coquimbo, which contain recent marine shells. Abrupt, but rounded, hummocks of rock rise out of this plain: those of Sta. Lucia and S. Cristoval are formed of greenstone-porphyry almost entirely denuded of its original covering of porphyritic claystone breccia; on their summits, many fragments of rock (some of them kinds not found in situ) are coated and united together by a white, friable, calcareous tuff, like that found at Podaguel. When this matter was deposited on the summit of S. Cristoval, the water must have stood 946 feet above the surface of the surrounding plain. (Or 2,690 feet above the sea, as measured barometrically by Mr. Eck. This tuff appears to the eye nearly pure; but when placed in acid it leaves a considerable residue of sand and broken crystals, apparently of feldspar.

Charles Darwin

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