Whether in the present class of cases the corolla was first affected, as seems to me the more probable view, or the reproductive organs first failed, their states of development are now firmly correlated. We see this well-illustrated in Hydrangea and Viburnum; for when these plants are cultivated, the corollas of both the interior and exterior flowers become largely developed, and their reproductive organs are aborted.

There is a closely analogous subdivision of plants, including the genus Muscari (or Feather Hyacinth) and the allied Bellevalia, which bear both perfect flowers and closed bud-like bodies that never expand. The latter resemble in this respect cleistogamic flowers, but differ widely from them in being sterile and conspicuous. Not only the aborted flower-buds and their peduncles (which are elongated apparently through the principle of compensation) are brightly coloured, but so is the upper part of the spike--all, no doubt, for the sake of guiding insects to the inconspicuous perfect flowers. From such cases as these we may pass on to certain Labiatae, for instance, Salvia Horminum in which (as I hear from Mr. Thiselton Dyer) the upper bracts are enlarged and brightly coloured, no doubt for the same purpose as before, with the flowers suppressed.

In the Carrot and some allied Umbelliferae, the central flower has its petals somewhat enlarged, and these are of a dark purplish-red tint; but it cannot be supposed that this one small flower makes the large white umbel at all more conspicuous to insects. The central flowers are said to be neuter or sterile, but I obtained by artificial fertilisation a seed (fruit) apparently perfect from one such flower. (Introduction/12. 'The English Flora' by Sir J.E. Smith 1824 volume 2 page 39.) Occasionally two or three of the flowers next to the central one are similarly characterised; and according to Vaucher "cette singuliere degeneration s'etend quelquefois a l'ombelle entiere." (Introduction/13. 'Hist. Phys. des Plantes d'Europe' 1841 tome 2 page 614. On the Echinophora page 627.) That the modified central flower is of no functional importance to the plant is almost certain. It may perhaps be a remnant of a former and ancient condition of the species, when one flower alone, the central one, was female and yielded seeds, as in the Umbelliferous genus Echinophora. There is nothing surprising in the central flower tending to retain its former condition longer than the others; for when irregular flowers become regular or peloric, they are apt to be central; and such peloric flowers apparently owe their origin either to arrested development--that is, to the preservation of an early stage of development--or to reversion. Central and perfectly developed flowers in not a few plants in their normal condition (for instance, the common Rue and Adoxa) differ slightly in structure, as in the number of the parts, from the other flowers on the same plant. All such cases seem connected with the fact of the bud which stands at the end of the shoot being better nourished than the others, as it receives the most sap. (Introduction/14. This whole subject, including pelorism, has been discussed, and references given in my 'Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication' chapter 26 2nd edition volume 2 page 338.)

The cases hitherto mentioned relate to hermaphrodite species which bear differently constructed flowers; but there are some plants that produce differently formed seeds, of which Dr. Kuhn has given a list. (Introduction/15. 'Botanische Zeitung' 1867 page 67.) With the Umbelliferae and Compositae, the flowers that produce these seeds likewise differ, and the differences in the structure of the seeds are of a very important nature. The causes which have led to differences in the seeds on the same plant are not known; and it is very doubtful whether they subserve any special end.

We now come to our second Class, that of monoecious species, or those which have their sexes separated but borne on the same plant. The flowers necessarily differ, but when those of one sex include rudiments of the other sex, the difference between the two kinds is usually not great.

Charles Darwin

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