Now Gartner has shown that, on the calculation of Verbascum lychnitis yielding with its own pollen 100 seeds, it yielded when fertilised by the pollen of Verbascum Phoeniceum 90 seeds; by the pollen of Verbascum nigrum, 63 seeds; by that of Verbascum blattaria, 62 seeds. So again, Dianthus barbatus fertilised by the pollen of D. superbus yielded 81 seeds, and by the pollen of D. japonicus 66 seeds, relatively to the 100 seeds produced by its own pollen. We thus see--and the fact is highly remarkable--that with Primula the illegitimate unions relatively to the legitimate are more sterile than crosses between distinct species of other genera relatively to their pure unions. Mr. Scott has given a still more striking illustration of the same fact: he crossed Primula auricula with pollen of four other species (P. palinuri, viscosa, hirsuta, and verticillata), and these hybrid unions yielded a larger average number of seeds than did P. auricula when fertilised illegitimately with its own-form pollen. (1/7. 'Journal of the Linnean Society Botany' volume 8 1864 page 93.)

The benefit which heterostyled dimorphic plants derive from the existence of the two forms is sufficiently obvious, namely, the intercrossing of distinct plants being thus ensured. (1/8. I have shown in my work on the 'Effects of Cross and Self-fertilisation' how greatly the offspring from intercrossed plants profit in height, vigour, and fertility.) Nothing can be better adapted for this end than the relative positions of the anthers and stigmas in the two forms, as shown in Figure 1.2; but to this whole subject I shall recur. No doubt pollen will occasionally be placed by insects or fall on the stigma of the same flower; and if cross-fertilisation fails, such self-fertilisation will be advantageous to the plant, as it will thus be saved from complete barrenness. But the advantage is not so great as might at first be thought, for the seedlings from illegitimate unions do not generally consist of both forms, but all belong to the parent form; they are, moreover, in some degree weakly in constitution, as will be shown in a future chapter. If, however, a flower's own pollen should first be placed by insects or fall on the stigma, it by no means follows that cross-fertilisation will be thus prevented. It is well known that if pollen from a distinct species be placed on the stigma of a plant, and some hours afterwards its own pollen be placed on it, the latter will be prepotent and will quite obliterate any effect from the foreign pollen; and there can hardly be a doubt that with heterostyled dimorphic plants, pollen from the other form will obliterate the effects of pollen from the same form, even when this has been placed on the stigma a considerable time before. To test this belief, I placed on several stigmas of a long-styled cowslip plenty of pollen from the same plant, and after twenty-four hours added some from a short-styled dark-red Polyanthus, which is a variety of the cowslip. From the flowers thus treated 30 seedlings were raised, and all these, without exception, bore reddish flowers; so that the effect of pollen from the same form, though placed on the stigmas twenty-four hours previously, was quite destroyed by that of pollen from a plant belonging to the other form.

Finally, I may remark that of the four kinds of unions, that of the short-styled illegitimately fertilised with its own-form pollen seems to be the most sterile of all, as judged by the average number of seeds, which the capsules contained. A smaller proportion, also, of these seeds than of the others germinated, and they germinated more slowly. The sterility of this union is the more remarkable, as it has already been shown that the short-styled plants yield a larger number of seeds than the long-styled, when both forms are fertilised, either naturally or artificially, in a legitimate manner.

In a future chapter, when I treat of the offspring from heterostyled dimorphic and trimorphic plants illegitimately fertilised with their own-form pollen, I shall have occasion to show that with the present species and several others, equal-styled varieties sometimes appear.

Charles Darwin

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