Hildebrand likewise protected some long-styled and short-styled plants, but neither ever yielded a single capsule. He thinks that the difference in our results may be accounted for by his plants having been kept in a room and never having been shaken; but this explanation seems to me doubtful; his plants were in a less fertile condition than mine, as shown by the difference in the number of seeds produced, and it is highly probable that their lessened fertility would have interfered with especial force with their capacity for producing self- fertilised seeds.

[Primula auricula. (1/11. According to Kerner our garden auriculas are descended from P. pubescens, Jacq., which is a hybrid between the true P. auricula and hirsuta. This hybrid has now been propagated for about 300 years, and produces, when legitimately fertilised, a large number of seeds; the long-styled forms yielding an average number of 73, and the short-styled 98 seeds per capsule: see his "Geschichte der Aurikel" 'Zeitschr. des Deutschen und Oest. Alpen-Vereins' Band 6 page 52. Also 'Die Primulaceen-Bastarten' 'Oest. Botanische Zeitschrift' 1835 Numbers 3, 4 and 5.)

This species is heterostyled, like the preceding ones; but amongst the varieties distributed by florists the long-styled form is rare, as it is not valued. There is a much greater relative inequality in the length of the pistil and stamens in the two forms of the auricula than in the cowslip; the pistil in the long-styled being nearly four times as long as that in the short-styled, in which it is barely longer than the ovarium. The stigma is nearly of the same shape in both forms, but is rougher in the long-styled, though the difference is not so great as between the two forms of the cowslip. In the long-styled plants the stamens are very short, rising but little above the ovarium. The pollen-grains of these short stamens, when distended with water, were barely 5/6000 of an inch in diameter, whereas those from the long stamens of the short-styled plants were barely 7/6000, showing a relative difference of about 71 to 100. The smaller grains of the long-styled plant are also much more transparent, and before distention with water more triangular in outline than those of the other form. Mr. Scott compared ten plants of both forms growing under similar conditions, and found that, although the long-styled plant produced more umbels and more capsules than the short-styled, yet they yielded fewer seeds, in the ratio of 66 to 100. (1/12. 'Journal of the Linnean Society Botany' volume 8 1864 page 86.) Three short-styled plants were protected by me from the access of insects, and they did not produce a single seed. Mr. Scott protected six plants of both forms, and found them excessively sterile. The pistil of the long-styled form stands so high above the anthers, that it is scarcely possible that pollen should reach the stigma without some aid; and one of Mr. Scott's long-styled plants which yielded a few seeds (only 18 in number) was infested by aphides, and he does not doubt that these had imperfectly fertilised it.

I tried a few experiments by reciprocally fertilising the two forms in the same manner as before, but my plants were unhealthy, so I will give, in a condensed form, the results of Mr. Scott's experiments. For fuller particulars with respect to this and the five following species, the paper lately referred to may be consulted. In each case the fertility of the two legitimate unions, taken together, is compared with that of the two illegitimate unions together, by the same two standards as before, namely, by the proportional number of flowers which produced good capsules, and by the average number of seeds per capsule. The fertility of the legitimate unions is always taken at 100.

By the first standard, the fertility of the two legitimate unions of the auricula is to that of the two illegitimate unions as 100 to 80; and by the second standard as 100 to 15.

Primula Sikkimensis.

According to Mr. Scott, the pistil of the long-styled form is fully four times as long as that of the short-styled, but their stigmas are nearly alike in shape and roughness.

Charles Darwin

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