Next year again it changed its character, and produced, in addition to the ordinary umbels, a few single- flowered scapes, bearing flowers somewhat smaller and more deeply coloured than those of the common primrose. From what I have myself observed with oxlips, I cannot doubt that this plant was an oxlip in a highly variable condition, almost like that of the famous Cytisus adami. This presumed oxlip was propagated by offsets, which were planted in different parts of the garden; and if Professor Henslow took by mistake seeds from one of these plants, especially if it had been crossed by a primrose, the result would be quite intelligible. Another case is still more difficult to understand: Dr. Herbert raised, from the seeds of a highly cultivated red cowslip, cowslips, oxlips of various kinds, and a primrose. (2/10. 'Transactions of the Horticultural Society' 4 page 19.) This case, if accurately recorded, which I much doubt, is explicable only on the improbable assumption that the red cowslip was not of pure parentage. With species and varieties of many kinds, when intercrossed, one is sometimes strongly prepotent over the other; and instances are known of a variety crossed by another, producing offspring which in certain characters, as in colour, hairiness, etc., have proved identical with the pollen-bearing parent, and quite dissimilar to the mother-plant (2/11. I have given instances in my work 'On the Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication' chapter 15 2nd edition volume 2 page 69.); but I do not know of any instance of the offspring of a cross perfectly resembling, in a considerable number of important characters, the father alone. It is, therefore, very improbable that a pure cowslip crossed by a primrose should ever produce a primrose in appearance pure. Although the facts given by Dr. Herbert and Professor Henslow are difficult to explain, yet until it can be shown that a cowslip or a primrose, carefully protected from insects, will give birth to at least oxlips, the cases hitherto recorded have little weight in leading us to admit that the cowslip and primrose are varieties of one and the same species.

Negative evidence is of little value; but the following facts may be worth giving:--Some cowslips which had been transplanted from the fields into a shrubbery were again transplanted into highly manured land. In the following year they were protected from insects, artificially fertilised, and the seed thus procured was sown in a hotbed. The young plants were afterwards planted out, some in very rich soil, some in stiff poor clay, some in old peat, and some in pots in the greenhouse; so that these plants, 765 in number, as well as their parents, were subjected to diversified and unnatural treatment; but not one of them presented the least variation except in size--those in the peat attaining almost gigantic dimensions, and those in the clay being much dwarfed.

I do not, of course, doubt that cowslips exposed during SEVERAL successive generations to changed conditions would vary, and that this might occasionally occur in a state of nature. Moreover, from the law of analogical variation, the varieties of any one species of Primula would probably in some cases resemble other species of the genus. For instance I raised a red primrose from seed from a protected plant, and the flowers, though still resembling those of the primrose, were borne during one season in umbels on a long foot-stalk like that of a cowslip.

With regard to the second class of facts in support of the cowslip and primrose being ranked as mere varieties, namely, the well-ascertained existence in a state of nature of numerous linking forms (2/12. See an excellent article on this subject by Mr. H.C. Watson in the 'Phytologist' volume 3 page 43.):--If it can be shown that the common wild oxlip, which is intermediate in character between the cowslip and primrose, resembles in sterility and other essential respects a hybrid plant, and if it can further be shown that the oxlip, though in a high degree sterile, can be fertilised by either parent-species, thus giving rise to still finer gradational links, then the presence of such linking forms in a state of nature ceases to be an argument of any weight in favour of the cowslip and primrose being varieties, and becomes, in fact, an argument on the other side.

Charles Darwin

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