In 1862 I raised thirty-four plants of this Linum in a hot-bed; and these consisted of seventeen long-styled and seventeen short-styled forms. Seed sown later in the flower-garden yielded seventeen long-styled and twelve short-styled forms. These facts justify the statement that the two forms are produced in about equal numbers. The thirty-four plants of the first lot were kept under a net which excluded all insects, except such minute ones as Thrips. I fertilised fourteen long-styled flowers legitimately with pollen from the short-styled, and got eleven fine seed-capsules, which contained on an average 8.6 seeds per capsule, but only 5.6 appeared to be good. It may be well to state that ten seeds is the maximum production for a capsule, and that our climate cannot be very favourable to this North-African plant. On three occasions the stigmas of nearly a hundred flowers were fertilised illegitimately with their own-form pollen, taken from separate plants, so as to prevent any possible ill effects from close inter-breeding. Many other flowers were also produced, which, as before stated, must have received plenty of their own pollen; yet from all these flowers, borne by the seventeen long-styled plants, only three capsules were produced. One of these included no seed, and the other two together gave only five good seeds. It is probable that this miserable product of two half-fertile capsules from the seventeen plants, each of which must have produced at least fifty or sixty flowers, resulted from their fertilisation with pollen from the short-styled plants by the aid of Thrips; for I made a great mistake in keeping the two forms under the same net, with their branches often interlocking; and it is surprising that a greater number of flowers were not accidentally fertilised.

Twelve short-styled flowers were in this instance castrated, and afterwards fertilised legitimately with pollen from the long-styled form; and they produced seven fine capsules. These included on an average 7.6 seeds, but of apparently good seed only 4.3 per capsule. At three separate times nearly a hundred flowers were fertilised illegitimately with their own-form pollen, taken from separate plants; and numerous other flowers were produced, many of which must have received their own pollen. From all these flowers on the seventeen short-styled plants only fifteen capsules were produced, of which only eleven contained any good seed, on an average 4.2 per capsule. As remarked in the case of the long- styled plants, some even of these capsules were perhaps the product of a little pollen accidentally fallen from the adjoining flowers of the other form on to the stigmas, or transported by Thrips. Nevertheless the short-styled plants seem to be slightly more fertile with their own pollen than the long-styled, in the proportion of fifteen capsules to three; nor can this difference be accounted for by the short-styled stigmas being more liable to receive their own pollen than the long-styled, for the reverse is the case. The greater self-fertility of the short-styled flowers was likewise shown in 1861 by the plants in my flower- garden, which were left to themselves, and were but sparingly visited by insects.

On account of the probability of some of the flowers on the plants of both forms, which were covered under the same net, having been legitimately fertilised in an accidental manner, the relative fertility of the two legitimate and two illegitimate unions cannot be compared with certainty; but judging from the number of good seeds per capsule, the difference was at least in the ratio of 100 to 7, and probably much greater.

Hildebrand tested my results, but only on a single short-styled plant, by fertilising many flowers with their own-form pollen; and these did not produce any seed. This confirms my suspicion that some of the few capsules produced by the foregoing seventeen short-styled plants were the product of accidental legitimate fertilisation. Other flowers on the same plant were fertilised by Hildebrand with pollen from the long-styled form, and all produced fruit.

Charles Darwin

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