Of the flowers on the short-styled plants, twelve were illegitimately fertilised with own-form pollen, and they yielded one capsule, including only 3 good seeds; twelve other flowers were legitimately fertilised with pollen from long-styled flowers, and these produced nine capsules, but one was bad; the eight good capsules contained on an average 8 good seeds each. Judging from the number of seeds per capsule, the fertility of the two legitimate to that of the two illegitimate unions is as 100 to 20.

The numerous flowers on the eleven long-styled plants under the net, which were not fertilised, produced only three capsules, including 8, 4, and 1 good seeds. Whether these three capsules were the product of accidental legitimate fertilisation, owing to the branches of the plants of the two forms interlocking, I will not pretend to decide. The single long-styled plant which was left uncovered, and grew close by the uncovered short-styled plant, produced five good pods; but it was a poor and small plant.

The flowers borne on the thirteen short-styled plants under the net, which were not fertilised, produced twelve capsules, containing on an average 5.6 seeds. As some of these capsules were very fine, and as five were borne on one twig, I suspect that some minute insect had accidentally got under the net and had brought pollen from the other form to the flowers which produced this little group of capsules. The one uncovered short-styled plant which grew close to the uncovered long-styled plant yielded twelve capsules.

From these facts we have some reason to believe, as in the case of L. grandiflorum, that the short-styled plants are in a slight degree more fertile with their own pollen than are the long-styled plants. Anyhow we have the clearest evidence, that the stigmas of each form require for full fertility that pollen from the stamens of corresponding height belonging to the opposite form should be brought to them.

Hildebrand, in the paper lately referred to, confirms my results. He placed a short-styled plant in his house, and fertilised about 20 flowers with their own pollen, and about 30 with pollen from another plant belonging to the same form, and these 50 flowers did not set a single capsule. On the other hand he fertilised about 30 flowers with pollen from the long-styled form, and these, with the exception of two, yielded capsules, containing good seeds.

It is a singular fact, in contrast with what occurred in the case of L. grandiflorum, that the pollen-grains of both forms of L. perenne, when placed on their own-form stigmas, emitted their tubes, though this action did not lead to the production of seeds. After an interval of eighteen hours, the tubes penetrated the stigmatic tissue, but to what depth I did not ascertain. In this case the impotence of the pollen-grains on their own stigmas must have been due either to the tubes not reaching the ovules, or to their not acting properly after reaching them.

The plants both of L. perenne and grandiflorum, grew, as already stated, with their branches interlocked, and with scores of flowers of the two forms close together; they were covered by a rather coarse net, through which the wind, when high, passed; and such minute insects as Thrips could not, of course, be excluded; yet we have seen that the utmost possible amount of accidental fertilisation on seventeen long-styled plants in the one case, and on eleven long-styled plants in the other, resulted in the production, in each case, of three poor capsules; so that when the proper insects are excluded, the wind does hardly anything in the way of carrying pollen from plant to plant. I allude to this fact because botanists in speaking of the fertilisation of various flowers, often refer to the wind or to insects as if the alternative were indifferent. This view, according to my experience, is entirely erroneous. When the wind is the agent in carrying pollen, either from one sex to the other, or from hermaphrodite to hermaphrodite, we can recognise structure as manifestly adapted to its action as to that of insects when these are the carriers.

Charles Darwin

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