SUMMARY OF THE HEIGHTS AND WEIGHTS OF THE CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS.
Number of species and plants measured.--Tables given.--Preliminary remarks on the offspring of plants crossed by a fresh stock.--Thirteen cases specially considered.--The effects of crossing a self-fertilised plant either by another self-fertilised plant or by an intercrossed plant of the old stock.--Summary of the results.--Preliminary remarks on the crossed and self-fertilised plants of the same stock.--The twenty-six exceptional cases considered, in which the crossed plants did not exceed greatly in height the self-fertilised.--Most of these cases shown not to be real exceptions to the rule that cross-fertilisation is beneficial.--Summary of results.--Relative weights of the crossed and self-fertilised plants.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS IN CONSTITUTIONAL VIGOUR AND IN OTHER RESPECTS.
Greater constitutional vigour of crossed plants.--The effects of great crowding.--Competition with other kinds of plants.--Self-fertilised plants more liable to premature death.--Crossed plants generally flower before the self-fertilised.--Negative effects of intercrossing flowers on the same plant.--Cases described.--Transmission of the good effects of a cross to later generations.--Effects of crossing plants of closely related parentage.--Uniform colour of the flowers on plants self-fertilised during several generations and cultivated under similar conditions.
THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-FERTILISATION AND SELF-FERTILISATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDS.
Fertility of plants of crossed and self-fertilised parentage, both lots being fertilised in the same manner.--Fertility of the parent-plants when first crossed and self-fertilised, and of their crossed and self-fertilised offspring when again crossed and self-fertilised.--Comparison of the fertility of flowers fertilised with their own pollen and with that from other flowers on the same plant.--Self-sterile plants.--Causes of self-sterility.--The appearance of highly self-fertile varieties.--Self-fertilisation apparently in some respects beneficial, independently of the assured production of seeds.--Relative weights and rates of germination of seeds from crossed and self-fertilised flowers.
MEANS OF FERTILISATION.
Sterility and fertility of plants when insects are excluded.--The means by which flowers are cross-fertilised.--Structures favourable to self-fertilisation.--Relation between the structure and conspicuousness of flowers, the visits of insects, and the advantages of cross-fertilisation.--The means by which flowers are fertilised with pollen from a distinct plant.--Greater fertilising power of such pollen.--Anemophilous species.--Conversion of anemophilous species into entomophilous.--Origin of nectar.--Anemophilous plants generally have their sexes separated.--Conversion of diclinous into hermaphrodite flowers.--Trees often have their sexes separated.
THE HABITS OF INSECTS IN RELATION TO THE FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS.
Insects visit the flowers of the same species as long as they can.--Cause of this habit.--Means by which bees recognise the flowers of the same species.--Sudden secretion of nectar.--Nectar of certain flowers unattractive to certain insects.--Industry of bees, and the number of flowers visited within a short time.--Perforation of the corolla by bees.--Skill shown in the operation.--Hive-bees profit by the holes made by humble-bees.--Effects of habit.--The motive for perforating flowers to save time.--Flowers growing in crowded masses chiefly perforated.
Cross-fertilisation proved to be beneficial, and self-fertilisation injurious.--Allied species differ greatly in the means by which cross-fertilisation is favoured and self-fertilisation avoided.--The benefits and evils of the two processes depend on the degree of differentiation in the sexual elements.--The evil effects not due to the combination of morbid tendencies in the parents.--Nature of the conditions to which plants are subjected when growing near together in a state of nature or under culture, and the effects of such conditions.--Theoretical considerations with respect to the interaction of differentiated sexual elements.--Practical lessons.--Genesis of the two sexes.--Close correspondence between the effects of cross-fertilisation and self-fertilisation, and of the legitimate and illegitimate unions of heterostyled plants, in comparison with hybrid unions.