The tendrils contract spirally a short time after catching any object; those which catch nothing merely bend slowly downwards. But the whole subject of the spiral contraction of tendrils will be discussed after all the tendril-bearing species have been described.

Bignonia littoralis.--The young internodes revolve in large ellipses. An internode bearing immature tendrils made two revolutions, each in 3 hrs. 50 m.; but when grown older with the tendrils mature, it made two ellipses, each at the rate of 2 hrs. 44 m. This species, unlike the preceding, is incapable of twining round a stick: this does not appear to be due to any want of flexibility in the internodes or to the action of the tendrils, and certainly not to any want of the revolving power; nor can I account for the fact. Nevertheless the plant readily ascends a thin upright stick by seizing a point above with its two opposite tendrils, which then contract spirally. If the tendrils seize nothing, they do not become spiral.

The species last described, ascended a vertical stick by twining spirally and by seizing it alternately with its opposite tendrils, like a sailor pulling himself up a rope, hand over hand; the present species pulls itself up, like a sailor seizing with both hands together a rope above his head.

The tendrils are similar in structure to those of the last species. They continue growing for some time, even after they have clasped an object. When fully grown, though borne by a young plant, they are 9 inches in length. The three divergent toes are shorter relatively to the tarsus than in the former species; they are blunt at their tips and but slightly hooked; they are not quite equal in length, the middle one being rather longer than the others. Their outer surfaces are highly sensitive; for when lightly rubbed with a twig, they became perceptibly curved in 4 m. and greatly curved in 7 m. In 7 hrs. they became straight again and were ready to re-act. The tarsus, for the space of one inch close to the toes, is sensitive, but in a rather less degree than the toes; for the latter after a slight rubbing, became curved in about half the time. Even the middle part of the tarsus is sensitive to prolonged contact, as soon as the tendril has arrived at maturity. After it has grown old, the sensitiveness is confined to the toes, and these are only able to curl very slowly round a stick. A tendril is perfectly ready to act, as soon as the three toes have diverged, and at this period their outer surfaces first become irritable. The irritability spreads but little from one part when excited to another: thus, when a stick was caught by the part immediately beneath the three toes, these seldom clasped it, but remained sticking straight out.

The tendrils revolve spontaneously. The movement begins before the tendril is converted into a three-pronged grapnel by the divergence of the toes, and before any part has become sensitive; so that the revolving movement is useless at this early period. The movement is, also, now slow, two ellipses being completed conjointly in 24 hrs. 18 m. A mature tendril made an ellipse in 6 hrs.; so that it moved much more slowly than the internodes. The ellipses which were swept, both in a vertical and horizontal plane, were of large size. The petioles are not in the least sensitive, but revolve like the tendrils. We thus see that the young internodes, the petioles, and the tendrils all continue revolving together, but at different rates. The movements of the tendrils which rise opposite one another are quite independent. Hence, when the whole shoot is allowed freely to revolve, nothing can be more intricate than the course followed by the extremity of each tendril. A wide space is thus irregularly searched for some object to be grasped.

One other curious point remains to be mentioned. In the course of a few days after the toes have closely clasped a stick, their blunt extremities become developed, though not invariably, into irregular disc-like balls which have the power of adhering firmly to the wood. As similar cellular outgrowths will be fully described under B. capreolata, I will here say nothing more about them.

Charles Darwin

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