indicus, and, as is supposed, have all been largely crossed with this form. Pigs of this type have existed during a long period on the shores of the Mediterranean, for a figure ('Schweineschadel' s. 142) closely resembling the existing Neapolitan pig was found in the buried city of Herculaneum.

Rutimeyer has made the remarkable discovery that there lived contemporaneously in Switzerland, during the Neolithic period, two domesticated forms, the S. scrofa, and the S. scrofa palustris or Torfschwein. Rutimeyer perceived that the latter approached the Eastern breeds, and, according to Nathusius, it certainly belongs to the S. indicus group; but Rutimeyer has subsequently shown that it differs in some well- marked characters. This author was formerly convinced that his Torfschwein existed as a wild animal during the first part of the Stone period, and was domesticated during a later part of the same period. (3/5. 'Pfahlbauten' s. 163 et passim.) Nathusius, whilst he fully admits the curious fact first observed by Rutimeyer, that the bones of domesticated and wild animals can be distinguished by their different aspect, yet, from special difficulties in the case of the bones of the pig ('Schweineschadel' s. 147), is not convinced of the truth of the above conclusion; and Rutimeyer himself seems now to feel some doubt. Other naturalists have also argued strongly on the same side as Nathusius. (3/6. See J.W. Schutz' interesting essay 'Zur Kenntniss des Torfschweins' 1868. This author believes that the Torfschwein is descended from a distinct species, the S. sennariensis of Central Africa.)

Several breeds, differing in the proportions of the body, in the length of the ears, in the nature of the hair, in colour, etc., come under the S. indicus type. Nor is this surprising, considering how ancient the domestication of this form has been both in Europe and in China. In this latter country the date is believed by an eminent Chinese scholar (3/7. Stan. Julien quoted by de Blainville 'Osteographie' page 163.) to go back at least 4900 years from the present time. This same scholar alludes to the existence of many local varieties of the pig in China; and at the present time the Chinese take extraordinary pains in feeding and tending their pigs, not even allowing them to walk from place to place. (3/8. Richardson 'Pigs, their Origin' etc. page 26.) Hence these pigs, as Nathusius has remarked (3/9. 'Die Racen des Schweines' s. 47, 64.), display in an eminent degree the characters of a highly-cultivated race, and hence, no doubt, their high value in the improvement of our European breeds. Nathusius makes a remarkable statement ('Schweineschadel' s. 138), that the infusion of the 1/32nd, or even of the 1/64th, part of the blood of S. indicus into a breed of S. scrofa, is sufficient plainly to modify the skull of the latter species. This singular fact may perhaps be accounted for by several of the chief distinctive characters of S. indicus, such as the shortness of the lachrymal bones, etc., being common to several species of the genus; for in crosses characters which are common to many species apparently tend to be prepotent over those appertaining to only a few species.

(FIGURE 2. HEAD OF JAPAN OR MASKED PIG. (Copied from Mr. Bartlett's paper in 'Proc. Zoolog. Soc.' 1861 page 263.))

The Japan pig (S. pliciceps of Gray), which was formerly exhibited in the Zoological Gardens, has an extraordinary appearance from its short head, broad forehead and nose, great fleshy ears, and deeply furrowed skin. Figure 2 is copied from that given by Mr. Bartlett. (3/10. 'Proc. Zoolog. Soc.' 1861 page 263.) Not only is the face furrowed, but thick folds of skin, which are harder than the other parts, almost like the plates on the Indian rhinoceros, hang about the shoulders and rump. It is coloured black, with white feet, and breeds true. That it has long been domesticated there can be little doubt; and this might have been inferred even from the fact that its young are not longitudinally striped; for this is a character common to all the species included within the genus Sus and the allied genera whilst in their natural state.

Charles Darwin

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