These and various other modifications, as Nathusius observes, can hardly be considered as monstrosities, for they are not injurious, and are strictly inherited. The whole head is much shortened; thus, whilst in common breeds its length to that of the body is as 1 to 6, in the "cultur-racen" the proportion is as 1 to 9, and even recently as 1 to 11. (3/15. 'Die Racen des Schweines' s. 70.) Figure 3 (3/16. These woodcuts are copied from engravings given in Mr. S. Sidney's excellent edition of 'The Pig' by Youatt 1860. See pages 1, 16, 19.) of the head of a wild boar and of a sow from a photograph of the Yorkshire Large Breed, may aid in showing how greatly the head in a highly cultivated race has been modified and shortened.

Nathusius has well discussed the causes of the remarkable changes in the skull and shape of the body which the highly cultivated races have undergone. These modifications occur chiefly in the pure and crossed races of the S. indicus type; but their commencement may be clearly detected in the slightly improved breeds of the S. scrofa type. (3/17. 'Schweineschadel' s. 74, 135.) Nathusius states positively (s. 99, 103), as the result of common experience and of his experiments, that rich and abundant food, given during youth, tends by some direct action to make the head broader and shorter; and that poor food works a contrary result. He lays much stress on the fact that all wild and semi-domesticated pigs, in ploughing up the ground with their muzzles, have, whilst young, to exert the powerful muscles fixed to the hinder part of the head. In highly cultivated races this habit is no longer followed, and consequently the back of the skull becomes modified in shape, entailing other changes in other parts. There can hardly be a doubt that so great a change in habits would affect the skull; but it seems rather doubtful how far this will account for the greatly reduced length of the skull and for its concave front. It is well known (Nathusius himself advancing many cases, s. 104) that there is a strong tendency in many domestic animals--in bull- and pug-dogs, in the niata cattle, in sheep, in Polish fowls, short- faced tumbler pigeons, and in one variety of the carp--for the bones of the face to become greatly shortened. In the case of the dog, as H. Muller has shown, this seems caused by an abnormal state of the primordial cartilage. We may, however, readily admit that abundant and rich food supplied during many generations would give an inherited tendency to increased size of body, and that, from disuse, the limbs would become finer and shorter. (3/18. Nathusius 'Die Racen des Schweines' s. 71.) We shall in a future chapter see also that the skull and limbs are apparently in some manner correlated, so that any change in the one tends to affect the other.

Nathusius has remarked, and the observation is an interesting one, that the peculiar form of the skull and body in the most highly cultivated races is not characteristic of any one race, but is common to all when improved up to the same standard. Thus the large-bodied, long-eared, English breeds with a convex back, and the small-bodied, short-eared, Chinese breeds with a concave back, when bred to the same state of perfection, nearly resemble each other in the form of the head and body. This result, it appears, is partly due to similar causes of change acting on the several races, and partly to man breeding the pig for one sole purpose, namely, for the greatest amount of flesh and fat; so that selection has always tended towards one and the same end. With most domestic animals the result of selection has been divergence of character, here it has been convergence. (3/19. 'Die Racen des Schweines' s. 47. 'Schweineschadel' s. 104. Compare also the figures of the old Irish and the improved Irish breeds in Richardson on 'The Pig' 1847.)

The nature of the food supplied during many generations has apparently affected the length of the intestines; for, according to Cuvier (3/20. Quoted by Isid. Geoffroy 'Hist.

Charles Darwin

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