The ears of one kind were enormously developed, being, as measured by Mr. Clark, no less than 19 inches in length and 4 3/4 inches in breadth. As with cattle, the mammae of those breeds which are regularly milked become greatly developed; and, as Mr. Clark remarks, "it is not rare to see their teats touching the ground." The following cases are worth notice as presenting unusual points of variation. According to Godron (3/101. 'De l'Espece' tome 1 page 406. Mr. Clark also refers to differences in the shape of the mammae. Godron states that in the Nubian race the scrotum is divided into two lobes; and Mr. Clark gives a ludicrous proof of this fact, for he saw in the Mauritius a male goat of the Muscat breed purchased at a high price for a female in full milk. These differences in the scrotum are probably not due to descent from distinct species: for Mr. Clark states that this part varies much in form.), the mammae differ greatly in shape in different breeds, being elongated in the common goat, hemispherical in the Angora race, and bilobed and divergent in the goats of Syria and Nubia. According to this same author, the males of certain breeds have lost their usual offensive odour. In one of the Indian breeds the males and females have horns of widely-different shapes (3/102. Mr. Clark 'Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.' 2nd series volume 2 1848 page 361.); and in some breeds the females are destitute of horns. (3/103. Desmarest 'Encyclop. Method. Mammalogie' page 480.) M. Ramu of Nancy informs me that many of the goats there bear on the upper part of the throat a pair of hairy appendages, 70 mm. in length and about 10 mm. in diameter, which in external appearance resemble those above described on the jaws of pigs. The presence of inter-digital pits or glands on all four feet has been thought to characterise the genus Ovis, and their absence to be characteristic of the genus Capra; but Mr. Hodgson has found that they exist in the front feet of the majority of Himalayan goats. (3/104. 'Journal of Asiatic Soc. of Bengal' volume 16 1847 pages 1020, 1025.) Mr. Hodgson measured the intestines in two goats of the Dugu race, and he found that the proportional length of the great and small intestines differed considerably. In one of these goats the caecum was thirteen inches, and in the other no less than thirty-six inches in length!
DOMESTIC RABBITS DESCENDED FROM THE COMMON WILD RABBIT. ANCIENT DOMESTICATION. ANCIENT SELECTION. LARGE LOP-EARED RABBITS. VARIOUS BREEDS. FLUCTUATING CHARACTERS. ORIGIN OF THE HIMALAYAN BREED. CURIOUS CASE OF INHERITANCE. FERAL RABBITS IN JAMAICA AND THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. PORTO SANTO FERAL RABBITS. OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS. SKULL. SKULL OF HALF-LOP RABBITS. VARIATIONS IN THE SKULL ANALOGOUS TO DIFFERENCES IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HARES. VERTEBRAE. STERNUM. SCAPULA. EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE PROPORTIONS OF THE LIMBS AND BODY. CAPACITY OF THE SKULL AND REDUCED SIZE OF THE BRAIN. SUMMARY ON THE MODIFICATIONS OF DOMESTICATED RABBITS.
All naturalists, with, as far as I know, a single exception, believe that the several domestic breeds of the rabbit are descended from the common wild species; I shall therefore describe them more carefully than in the previous cases. Professor Gervais (4/1. M.P. Gervais 'Hist. Nat. des Mammiferes' 1854. tome 1 page 288.) states "that the true wild rabbit is smaller than the domestic; its proportions are not absolutely the same; its tail is smaller; its ears are shorter and more thickly clothed with hair; and these characters, without speaking of colour, are so many indications opposed to the opinion which unites these animals under the same specific denomination." Few naturalists will agree with this author that such slight differences are sufficient to separate as distinct species the wild and domestic rabbit. How extraordinary it would be, if close confinement, perfect tameness, unnatural food, and careful breeding, all prolonged during many generations, had not produced at least some effect! The tame rabbit has been domesticated from an ancient period.