(13/60. See Steenstrup on the 'Obliquity of Flounders' in Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.' May 1865 page 361. I have given an abstract of Malm's explanation of this wonderful phenomenon in the 'Origin of Species' 6th Edition page 186.) In most flat-fishes the left is the blind side, but in some it is the right; though in both cases reversed or "wrong fishes," are occasionally developed; and in Platessa flesus the right or left side is indifferently the upper one. With gasteropods or shell-fish, the right and left sides are extremely unlike; the far greater number of species are dextral, with rare and occasional reversals of development; and some few are normally sinistral; but certain species of Bulimus, and many Achatinellae (13/61. Dr. E. von Martens in 'Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.' March 1866 page 209.) are as often sinistral as dextral. I will give an analogous case in the great articulate kingdom: the two sides of Verruca (13/62. Darwin 'Balanidae' Ray Soc. 1854 page 499: see also the appended remarks on the apparently capricious development of the thoracic limbs on the right and left sides in the higher crustaceans.) are so wonderfully unlike, that without careful dissection it is extremely difficult to recognise the corresponding parts on the opposite sides of the body; yet it is apparently a mere matter of chance whether it be the right or the left side that undergoes so singular amount of change. One plant is known to me (13/63. Mormodes ignea: Darwin 'Fertilisation of Orchids' 1862 page 251.) in which the flower, according as it stands on the one or other side of the spike, is unequally developed. In all the foregoing cases the two sides are perfectly symmetrical at an early period of growth. Now, whenever a species is as liable to be unequally developed on the one as on the other side, we may infer that the capacity for such development is present, though latent, in the undeveloped side. And as a reversal of development occasionally occurs in animals of many kinds, this latent capacity is probably very common.

The best yet simplest cases of characters lying dormant are, perhaps, those previously given, in which chickens and young pigeons, raised from a cross between differently coloured birds, are at first of one colour, but in a year or two acquire feathers of the colour of the other parent; for in this case the tendency to a change of plumage is clearly latent in the young bird. So it is with hornless breeds of cattle, some of which acquire small horns as they grow old. Purely bred black and white bantams, and some other fowls, occasionally assume, with advancing years, the red feathers of the parent- species. I will here add a somewhat different case, as it connects in a striking manner latent characters of two classes. Mr. Hewitt (13/64. 'Journal of Horticulture' July 1864 page 38. I have had the opportunity of examining these remarkable feathers through the kindness of Mr. Tegetmeier.) possessed an excellent Sebright gold-laced bantam hen, which, as she became old, grew diseased in her ovaria, and assumed male characters. In this breed the males resemble the females in all respects except in their combs, wattles, spurs, and instincts; hence it might have been expected that the diseased hen would have assumed only those masculine characters which are proper to the breed, but she acquired, in addition, well-arched tail sickle-feathers quite a foot in length, saddle-feathers on the loins, and hackles on the neck,--ornaments which, as Mr. Hewitt remarks, "would be held as abominable in this breed." The Sebright bantam is known (13/65. 'The Poultry Book' by Mr. Tegetmeier 1866 page 241.) to have originated about the year 1800 from a cross between a common bantam and a Polish fowl, recrossed by a hen-tailed bantam, and carefully selected; hence there can hardly be a doubt that the sickle-feathers and hackles which appeared in the old hen were derived from the Polish fowl or common bantam; and we thus see that not only certain masculine characters proper to the Sebright bantam, but other masculine characters derived from the first progenitors of the breed, removed by a period of above sixty years, were lying latent in this henbird, ready to be evolved as soon as her ovaria became diseased.

Charles Darwin

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