Indeed, some animals in our Zoological Gardens have become more productive since the year 1846. It is, also, manifest from F. Cuvier's account of the Jardin des Plantes (18/11. Du Rut 'Annales du Museum' 1807 tome 9 page 120.) that the animals formerly bred much less freely there than with us; for instance, in the Duck tribe, which is highly prolific, only one species had at that period produced young.

[The most remarkable cases, however, are afforded by animals kept in their native country, which, though perfectly tamed, quite healthy, and allowed some freedom, are absolutely incapable of breeding. Rengger (18/12. 'Saugethiere von Paraguay' 1830 s. 49, 106, 118, 124, 201, 208, 249, 265, 327.), who in Paraguay particularly attended to this subject, specifies six quadrupeds in this condition; and he mentions two or three others which most rarely breed. Mr. Bates, in his admirable work on the Amazons, strongly insists on similar cases (18/13. 'The Naturalist on the Amazons' 1863 volume 1 pages 99, 193; volume 2 page 113.); and he remarks, that the fact of thoroughly tamed native mammals and birds not breeding when kept by the Indians, cannot be wholly accounted for by their negligence or indifference, for the turkey and fowl are kept and bred by various remote tribes. In almost every part of the world--for instance, in the interior of Africa, and in several of the Polynesian islands --the natives are extremely fond of taming the indigenous quadrupeds and birds; but they rarely or never succeed in getting them to breed.

The most notorious case of an animal not breeding in captivity is that of the elephant. Elephants are kept in large numbers in their native Indian home, live to old age, and are vigorous enough for the severest labour; yet, with a very few exceptions, they have never been known even to couple, though both males and females have their proper periodical seasons. If, however, we proceed a little eastward to Ava, we hear from Mr. Crawfurd (18/14. 'Embassy to the Court of Ava' volume 1 page 534.) that their "breeding in the domestic state, or at least in the half-domestic state in which the female elephants are generally kept, is of everyday occurrence;" and Mr. Crawfurd informs me that he believes that the difference must be attributed solely to the females being allowed to roam the forest with some degree of freedom. The captive rhinoceros, on the other hand, seems from Bishop Heber's account (18/15. 'Journal' volume 1 page 213.) to breed in India far more readily than the elephant. Four wild species of the horse genus have bred in Europe, though here exposed to a great change in their natural habits of life; but the species have generally been crossed one with another. Most of the members of the pig family breed readily in our menageries; even the Red River hog (Potamochoerus penicillatus), from the sweltering plains of West Africa, has bred twice in the Zoological Gardens. Here also the Peccary (Dicotyles torquatus) has bred several times; but another species, the D. labiatus, though rendered so tame as to be half-domesticated, is said to breed so rarely in its native country of Paraguay, that according to Rengger (18/16. 'Saugethiere' s. 327.) the fact requires confirmation. Mr. Bates remarks that the tapir, though often kept tame in Amazonia by the Indians, never breeds.

Ruminants generally breed quite freely in England, though brought from widely different climates, as may be seen in the Annual Reports of the Zoological Gardens, and in the Gleanings from Lord Derby's menagerie.

The Carnivora, with the exception of the Plantigrade division, breed (though with capricious exceptions) about half as freely as ruminants. Many species of Felidae have bred in various menageries, although imported from diverse climates and closely confined. Mr. Bartlett, the present superintendent of the Zoological Gardens (18/17. On the Breeding of the Larger Felidae 'Proc. Zoolog. Soc.' 1861 page 140.) remarks that the lion appears to breed more frequently and to bring forth more young at a birth than any other species of the family.

Charles Darwin

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