Nevertheless, there is never the slightest difficulty in distinguishing between the two forms; for, besides the difference in the divergence of the stigmas, those of the short-styled form never reach even to the bases of the anthers. In this form the papillae on the stigmatic surfaces are shorter, darker-coloured, and more crowded together than in the long-styled form; but these differences seem due merely to the shortening of the stigma, for in the varieties of the long-styled form with shorter stigmas, the papillae are more crowded and darker-coloured than in those with the longer stigmas. Considering the slight and variable differences between the two forms of this Linum, it is not surprising that hitherto they have been overlooked.

In 1861 I had eleven plants in my garden, eight of which were long-styled, and three short-styled. Two very fine long-styled plants grew in a bed a hundred yards off all the others, and separated from them by a screen of evergreens. I marked twelve flowers, and placed on their stigmas a little pollen from the short-styled plants. The pollen of the two forms is, as stated, identical in appearance; the stigmas of the long-styled flowers were already thickly covered with their own pollen--so thickly that I could not find one bare stigma, and it was late in the season, namely, September 15th. Altogether, it seemed almost childish to expect any result. Nevertheless from my experiments on Primula, I had faith, and did not hesitate to make the trial, but certainly did not anticipate the full result which was obtained. The germens of these twelve flowers all swelled, and ultimately six fine capsules (the seed of which germinated on the following year) and two poor capsules were produced; only four capsules shanking off. These same two long-styled plants produced, in the course of the summer, a vast number of flowers, the stigmas of which were covered with their own pollen; but they all proved absolutely barren, and their germens did not even swell.

The nine other plants, six long-styled and three short-styled, grew not very far apart in my flower-garden. Four of these long-styled plants produced no seed- capsules; the fifth produced two; and the remaining one grew so close to a short-styled plant that their branches touched, and this produced twelve capsules, but they were poor ones. The case was different with the short-styled plants. The one which grew close to the long-styled plant produced ninety-four imperfectly fertilised capsules containing a multitude of bad seeds, with a moderate number of good ones. The two other short-styled plants growing together were small, being partly smothered by other plants; they did not stand very close to any long-styled plants, yet they yielded together nineteen capsules. These facts seem to show that the short-styled plants are more fertile with their own pollen than are the long-styled, and we shall immediately see that this probably is the case. But I suspect that the difference in fertility between the two forms was in this instance in part due to a distinct cause. I repeatedly watched the flowers, and only once saw a humble-bee momentarily alight on one, and then fly away. If bees had visited the several plants, there cannot be a doubt that the four long-styled plants, which did not produce a single capsule, would have borne an abundance. But several times I saw small diptera sucking the flowers; and these insects, though not visiting the flowers with anything like the regularity of bees, would carry a little pollen from one form to the other, especially when growing near together; and the stigmas of the short-styled plants, diverging within the tube of the corolla, would be more likely than the upright stigmas of the long-styled plants, to receive a small quantity of pollen if brought to them by small insects. Moreover from the greater number of the long-styled than of the short-styled plants in the garden, the latter would be more likely to receive pollen from the long-styled, than the long-styled from the short-styled.

Charles Darwin

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